N-cadherin upregulation and function in response of smooth muscle cells to arterial injury.
ABSTRACT Smooth muscle cell migration is critical to neointimal formation after arterial injury. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the regulation and functional significance of cell-cell adhesion via adherens junctions during this process.
Using balloon catheter injury of rat carotid artery, we showed that neointimal formation is accompanied by dramatic but transient upregulation of intimal N-cadherin and associated catenins, proteins that mediate adhesion at adherens junctions. Upregulation was demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy and by immunoblotting, and it coincided with evidence of phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells. Similar upregulation was observed when postconfluent cultures of porcine aortic smooth muscle cells were subjected to linear denuding injuries. Furthermore, treatment of wounded cultures with a blocking antibody against the extracellular domain of the N-cadherin protein significantly suppressed the repair of wounds.
N-cadherin and associated proteins are dynamically regulated during neointimal formation and provide evidence that this regulation is important for migratory repair. Therefore, N-cadherin may provide a novel target for therapies that are directed toward intimal proliferative disorders, including restenosis and vascular bypass graft failure.
Article: Regulation of cell-matrix contacts and beta-catenin signaling in VSMC by integrin-linked kinase: implications for intimal thickening.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration is responsible for intimal thickening that occurs in restenosis and atherosclerosis. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase implicated in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and migration. We studied the involvement of ILK in intimal thickening. ILK expression was significantly increased in two models of intimal thickening: balloon-injured rat carotid arteries and human saphenous vein organ cultures. Over-expression of a dominant negative ILK (DN-ILK) significantly reduced intimal thickening by approximately 50% in human saphenous vein organ cultures, demonstrating an important role in intimal thickening. ILK protein and activity was reduced on laminin and up-regulated on fibronectin, indicating ILK protein expression is modulated by extracellular matrix composition. Inhibition of ILK by siRNA knockdown and DN-ILK significantly decreased VSMC proliferation and migration while wild type ILK significantly increased proliferation and migration on laminin, confirming an essential role of ILK in both processes. Localization of paxillin and vinculin and protein levels of FAK and phospho-FAK indicated that inhibition of ILK reduced focal adhesion formation. Additionally, inhibition of ILK significantly attenuated the presence of the cell-cell complex proteins N-cadherin and beta-catenin, and beta-catenin signaling. We therefore suggest ILK modulates VSMC proliferation and migration at least in part by acting as a molecular scaffold in focal adhesions as well as modulating the stability of cell-cell contact proteins and beta-catenin signaling. In summary, ILK plays an important role in intimal thickening by modulating VSMC proliferation and migration via regulation of cell-matrix and cell-cell contacts and beta-catenin signaling.Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 06/2008; 103(3):244-56. · 7.35 Impact Factor
Article: Inhibition of N-cadherin retards smooth muscle cell migration and intimal thickening via induction of apoptosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration is a potential strategy for reducing intimal thickening during in-stent restenosis and vein graft failure. In this study, we examined the effect of disrupting the function of the VSMC adhesion molecule, N-cadherin, using antagonists, neutralizing antibodies, and a dominant negative, on VSMC migration and intimal thickening. Migration was assessed by the scratch-wound assay of human saphenous vein VSMCs and in a human saphenous vein ex vivo organ culture model of intimal thickening. Inhibition of cadherin function using a pan-cadherin antagonist, significantly reduced migration by 53%±8% compared with the control peptide (n=3; P<.05). Furthermore, inhibition of N-cadherin function with an N-cadherin antagonist, neutralizing antibodies, and adenoviral expression of dominant negative N-cadherin (RAd dn-N-cadherin), significantly reduced migration by 31%±2%, 23%±1% and 32%±7% compared with controls, respectively (n=3; P<.05). Inhibition of cadherin function significantly increased apoptosis by between 1.5- and 3.3-fold at the wound edge. In an ex vivo model of intimal thickening, inhibition of N-cadherin function by infection of human saphenous vein segments with RAd dn-N-cadherin significantly reduced VSMC migration by 55% and increased VSMC apoptosis by 2.7-fold. As a result, intimal thickening was significantly suppressed by 54%±14%. Importantly, there was no detrimental effect of dn-N-cadherin on endothelial coverage; in fact, it was significantly increased, as was survival of cultured human saphenous vein endothelial cells. Under the condition of this study, cell-cell adhesion mediated by N-cadherin regulates VSMC migration via modulation of viability. Interestingly, inhibition of N-cadherin function significantly retards intimal thickening via inhibition of VSMC migration and promotion of endothelial cell survival. We suggest that disruption of N-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts is a potential strategy for reducing VSMC migration and intimal thickening.Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 11/2010; 52(5):1301-9. · 3.52 Impact Factor
Article: Nox1 transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor promotes N-cadherin shedding and smooth muscle cell migration.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In atherosclerosis and restenosis, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) migrate into the subendothelial space and proliferate, contributing to neointimal formation. The goal of this study was to define the signalling pathway by which Nox1 NAPDH oxidase mediates SMC migration. SMCs were cultured from thoracic aorta from Nox1(-/y) (Nox1 knockout, KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. In response to thrombin, WT but not Nox1 KO SMCs generated increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Deficiency of Nox1 prevented thrombin-induced phosphorylation of Src and the subsequent transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at multiple tyrosine residues. Next, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) by thrombin was inhibited by the EGFR inhibitor AG1478 and in Nox1 KO SMCs. Thrombin-induced shedding of N-cadherin from the plasma membrane was dependent on the presence of Nox1 and was blocked by AG1478 and an inhibitor of metalloproteinases. Migration of SMCs to thrombin was impaired in the Nox1 KO SMCs and was restored by expression of Nox1. Finally, treatment of WT SMCs with AG1478 abrogated Nox1-dependent SMC migration. The Nox1 NADPH oxidase signals through EGFR to activate MMP-9 and promote the shedding of N-cadherin, thereby contributing to SMC migration.Cardiovascular research 11/2011; 93(3):406-13. · 5.80 Impact Factor