Beta-adrenergic receptor activation inhibits keratinocyte migration via a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-independent mechanism.
ABSTRACT There is increasing evidence that G-protein-coupled receptors cross-talk with growth factor receptor-mediated signal transduction in a variety of cell types. We have investigated mechanisms by which the activation of beta-adrenergic receptors, classically GTP-binding proteins coupled receptors, influence the migration of cultured human keratinocytes. We found that iso-proterenol, a beta-adrenergic receptor-selective agonist, inhibited cell migration stimulated by either epidermal growth factor, or extracellular Ca2+ in a concentration-dependent manner. This was prevented by pretreatment of the cells with the beta-adrenergic receptor-selective antagonist timolol. Interestingly, isoproterenol, at a concentration of 1 nm, did not measurably increase intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations yet inhibited cell migration by 50%. To test further if isoproterenol's actions were mediated via activation of adenylyl cyclase, two inhibitors of its activity, 2'5'-dideoxyadenosine and SQ22536, were used. Both compounds significantly diminished iso-proterenol-induced increases in intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations but did not attenuate isoproterenol-induced inhibition of cell migration. Also, forskolin (1 microm) markedly increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations but did not significantly inhibit cell migration. As mitogen-activated protein kinases are known to signal growth factor-stimulated cell migration, we examined whether beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated inhibition of keratinocyte migration might occur via inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. We found that isoproterenol inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase in a concentration-dependent manner but had no effect on the phosphorylation of the stress mitogen-activated protein kinases c-jun N-terminal kinase and stress-activated protein kinase-2. Neither forskolin nor a membrane permeable cyclic adenosine monophosphate analog inhibited phosphorylation of any of these mitogen-activated protein kinases. These findings suggest that beta-adrenergic receptor-induced inhibition of keratinocyte migration is mediated through inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-independent manner.
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ABSTRACT: Catecholamines are present in saliva, but their influence on oral epithelium is not understood. Because psychological stress increases salivary catecholamines and impairs oral mucosal wound healing, we sought to determine if epithelial adrenergic signaling could link these two findings. We found that cultured human oral keratinocytes (HOK) express the α(2B)- and β(2)-adrenergic receptors (ARs). Exposure of HOK to either epinephrine or the β-AR agonist, isoproterenol, reduced migratory speed and decreased in vitro scratch wound healing. Incubation with the β-AR antagonist timolol reversed the catecholamine-induced effects, indicating that the observed response is mediated by β-AR. Epinephrine treatment decreased phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) ERK1/2 and p38; these decreases were also reversed with timolol. Cultured HOK express enzymes of the epinephrine synthetic pathway, and generate epinephrine. These findings demonstrate that stress-induced elevations of salivary catecholamines signal through MAPK pathways, and result in impaired oral keratinocyte migration required for healing.Journal of dental research 02/2011; 90(2):186-92. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stress-induced disruption of hormonal balance in animals and humans has a detrimental effect on wound healing. After the injury, keratinocytes migrate over the wound bed to repair a wound. However, their nonmigratory phenotype plays a role in pathogenesis of chronic wounds. Despite many therapeutic approaches, there is a dearth of treatments targeting the molecular mechanisms mediated by stress that prevent epithelization. Recent studies show that epidermal keratinocytes synthesize stress hormones. During acute wound healing, cortisol synthesis in the epidermis is tightly controlled. Further, a key intermediate molecule in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), can bind glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and activate GR. Additionally, keratinocytes express beta-2-adrenergic-receptor (β2AR), a receptor for the stress hormone epinephrine. Importantly, migratory rates of keratinocytes are reduced by cortisol, FPP, epinephrine, and other β2AR agonists, thus indicating their role in the inhibition of epithelization. Topical inhibition of local glucocorticoid and FPP synthesis, as well as treatment with β2AR antagonists promotes wound epithelization. Modulation of local stress hormone production may represent an important therapeutic target for wound healing disorders. Topical administration of inhibitors of cortisol synthesis, statins, β2AR antagonists, and systemic beta-blockers can decrease cortisol synthesis, FPP, and epinephrine levels, respectively, thus restoring keratinocyte migration capacity. These treatment modalities could represent a novel therapeutic approach for wound healing disorders. Attenuation of the local stress-induced hormonal imbalance in epidermis may advance therapeutic modalities, thereby leading to enhanced epithelization and improved wound healing.Advances in wound care. 02/2012; 1(1):29-35.
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ABSTRACT: The peptide hormone somatostatin (SST) and its five G protein-coupled receptors (SSTR1-5) were described to be present in the skin, but their cutaneous function(s) and skin-specific signalling mechanisms are widely unknown. By using receptor specific agonists we show here that the SSTRs expressed in keratinocytes are functionally coupled to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase. In addition, treatment with SSTR4 and SSTR5/1 specific agonists significantly influences the MAP kinase signalling pathway. As epidermal hormone receptors in general are known to regulate re-epithelialization following skin injury, we investigated the effect of SST on cell counts and migration of human keratinocytes. Our results demonstrate a significant inhibition of cell migration and reduction of cell counts by SST. We do not observe an effect on apoptosis and necrosis. Analysis of signalling pathways showed that somatostatin inhibits cell migration independent of its effect on cAMP. Migrating keratinocytes treated with SST show altered cytoskeleton dynamics with delayed lamellipodia formation. Furthermore, the activity of the small GTPase Rac1 is diminished, providing evidence for the control of the actin cytoskeleton by somatostatin receptors in keratinocytes. While activation of all receptors leads to redundant effects on cell migration, only treatment with a SSTR5/1 specific agonist resulted in decreased cell counts. In accordance with reduced cell counts and impaired migration we observe delayed re-epithelialization in an ex vivo wound healing model. Consequently, our experiments suggest SST as a negative regulator of epidermal wound healing.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e19740. · 3.53 Impact Factor