Coronary artery anomalies--current clinical issues: definitions, classification, incidence, clinical relevance, and treatment guidelines.
ABSTRACT The study of coronary artery anomalies would benefit from the clarification of various fundamental issues, including the definitions, classification, incidence, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and clinical relevance of each anomaly. The greatest challenge is to identify the abnormality and determine its clinical relevance so that appropriate treatment can be instituted. Currently, the coronary anatomy is essentially defined by the features of the (conductive) epicardial coronary tree and its dependent territory. Therefore, one must consider all the possible and observed variations in anatomic features that are used to describe the coronary arteries. We propose that the left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary arteries be considered the essential elementary units of coronary anatomy. We also suggest that the coronary arteries be defined not by their origin or proximal course, but by their intermediate and distal segments or dependent microvascular bed. A strict classification system is necessary before meaningful data can be gathered about the incidence of coronary anomalies. With respect to clinical relevance, the greatest challenge is presented by anomalies that only occasionally cause critically severe clinical events and are otherwise compatible with a normal life. In such cases, it is not known whether the specific features of a given anomaly cause adverse clinical consequences, or whether additional episodic factors are required. To correlate subclassifiable anatomic and functional features with clinical events and prognoses, a large, multicenter database, relying on prospective, coordinated protocols, is urgently needed. In the absence of established official guidelines, we present practical protocols for diagnosing and treating coronary anomalies.
- SourceAvailable from: Salah AM Said[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Congenital coronary-pulmonary fistulas (CPFs) are commonly unilateral, but bilateral and multilateral fistulas may occur. In multilateral CPFs, the value of a multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging technique as an adjuvant to coronary angiography (CAG) is eminent. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities, and management of coincidentally detected congenital CPFs.HypothesisUnilateral and multilateral coronary-pulmonary fistulas are increasingly detected due to the wide speard application of multidetector computed tomography which might be a supplementary or replacing to conventional coronary angiography.Methods We evaluated 14 adult patients with congenital coronary artery fistulas (CAFs) who were identified from several Dutch cardiology departments.ResultsFourteen adult patients (5 female and 9 male), with a mean age of 57.5 years (range, 24–80 years) had the following abnormal findings: audible systolic cardiac murmur (n = 4), chronic atrial fibrillation (n = 2), nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (n = 1), and cardiomegaly on chest x-ray (n = 2). Echocardiography revealed normal findings with trivial valvular abnormalities (n = 9), depressed left ventricle systolic function (n = 3), and severe mitral regurgitation and atrial dilatation (n = 2). The findings in the rest of the patients were unremarkable. CAG and MDCT were used as a diagnostic imaging techniques either alone (CAG, n = 6; MDCT, n = 1) or in combination (n = 7). Single modality and multimodality diagnostic methods revealed 22 fistulas including CPFs (n = 15), coronary cameral fistulas terminating into the right (n = 2) and the left atrium (n = 1), and systemic-pulmonary fistulas (n = 4). Of all of the fistulas, 10 were unilateral, 6 were bilateral, and 6 was hexalateral. 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography-computed tomography was performed in 3 patients revealing decreased myocardial perfusion reserve.ConclusionsCAG remains the gold standard for detection of CPFs. An adjuvant technique using MDCT provides full anatomical details of the fistulas.Clinical Cardiology 08/2014; · 1.83 Impact Factor
- Circulation 09/2014; 130(12):e102-3. · 15.20 Impact Factor