Sumoylation of Pdx1 is associated with its nuclear localization and insulin gene activation.
ABSTRACT Pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx1) is a transcription factor, and its phosphorylation is thought to be essential for activation of insulin gene expression. This phosphorylation is related to a concomitant shift in molecular mass from 31 to 46 kDa. However, we found that Pdx1 was modified by SUMO-1 (small ubiquitin-related modifier 1) in beta-TC-6 and COS-7 cells, which were transfected with Pdx1 cDNA. This modification contributed to the increase in molecular mass of Pdx1 from 31 to 46 kDa. Additionally, sumoylated Pdx1 localized in the nucleus. The reduction of SUMO-1 protein by use of RNA interference (SUMO-iRNAs) resulted in a significant decrease in Pdx1 protein in the nucleus. A 34-kDa form of Pdx1 was detected by the cells exposed to SUMO-iRNAs in the presence of lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor. Furthermore, the reduced nuclear sumoylated Pdx1 content was associated with significant lower transcriptional activity of the insulin gene. These findings indicate that SUMO-1 modification is associated with both the localization and stability of Pdx1 as well as its effect on insulin gene activation.
Article: Pdx1 is post-translationally modified in vivo and serine 61 is the principal site of phosphorylation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Maintaining sufficient levels of Pdx1 activity is a prerequisite for proper regulation of blood glucose homeostasis and beta cell function. Mice that are haploinsufficient for Pdx1 display impaired glucose tolerance and lack the ability to increase beta cell mass in response to decreased insulin signaling. Several studies have shown that post-translational modifications are regulating Pdx1 activity through intracellular localization and binding to co-factors. Understanding the signaling cues converging on Pdx1 and modulating its activity is therefore an attractive approach in diabetes treatment. We employed a novel technique called Nanofluidic Proteomic Immunoassay to characterize the post-translational profile of Pdx1. Following isoelectric focusing in nano-capillaries, this technology relies on a pan specific antibody for detection and it therefore allows the relative abundance of differently charged protein species to be examined simultaneously. In all eukaryotic cells tested we find that the Pdx1 protein separates into four distinct peaks whereas Pdx1 protein from bacteria only produces one peak. Of the four peaks in eukaryotic cells we correlate one of them to a phosphorylation Using alanine scanning and mass spectrometry we map this phosphorylation to serine 61 in both Min6 cells and in exogenous Pdx1 over-expressed in HEK293 cells. A single phosphorylation is also present in cultured islets but it remains unaffected by changes in glucose levels. It is present during embryogenesis but is not required for pancreas development.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35233. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat accumulation in the liver not due to alcohol abuse. NAFLD is accompanied by variety of symptoms related to metabolic syndrome. Although the metabolic link between NAFLD and insulin resistance is not fully understood, it is clear that NAFLD is one of the main cause of insulin resistance. NAFLD is shown to affect the functions of other organs, including pancreas, adipose tissue, muscle and inflammatory systems. Currently efforts are being made to understand molecular mechanism of interrelationship between NAFLD and insulin resistance at the transcriptional level with specific focus on post-translational modification (PTM) of transcription factors. PTM of transcription factors plays a key role in controlling numerous biological events, including cellular energy metabolism, cell-cycle progression, and organ development. Cell type- and tissue-specific reversible modifications include lysine acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, and SUMOylation. Moreover, phosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation on serine and threonine residues have been shown to affect protein stability, subcellular distribution, DNA-binding affinity, and transcriptional activity. PTMs of transcription factors involved in insulin-sensitive tissues confer specific adaptive mechanisms in response to internal or external stimuli. Our understanding of the interplay between these modifications and their effects on transcriptional regulation is growing. Here, we summarize the diverse roles of PTMs in insulin-sensitive tissues and their involvement in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.Experimental Diabetes Research 01/2012; 2012:716425. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The secretion of insulin by pancreatic islet β-cells plays a pivotal role in glucose homeostasis and diabetes. Recent work suggests an important role for SUMOylation in the control of insulin secretion from β-cells. In this paper we discuss mechanisms whereby (de)SUMOylation may control insulin release by modulating β-cell function at one or more key points; and particularly through the acute and reversible regulation of the exocytotic machinery. Furthermore, we postulate that the SUMO-specific protease SENP1 is an important mediator of insulin exocytosis in response to NADPH, a metabolic secretory signal and major determinant of β-cell redox state. Dialysis of mouse β-cells with NADPH efficiently amplifies β-cell exocytosis even when extracellular glucose is low; an effect that is lost upon knockdown of SENP1. Conversely, over-expression of SENP1 itself augments β-cell exocytosis in a redox-dependent manner. Taken together, we suggest that (de)SUMOylation represents an important mechanism that acutely regulates insulin secretion and that SENP1 can act as an amplifier of insulin exocytosis.Biomolecules. 05/2012; 2(2):269.