The effect of D-aspartate on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, GABA and dopamine release.
ABSTRACT Since D-aspartate stimulates prolactin and LH release, our objective was to determine whether D-aspartate modifies the release of hypothalamic and posterior pituitary factors involved in the control of their secretion and whether its effects on these tissues are exerted through NMDA receptors and mediated by nitric oxide. In the hypothalamus, D-aspartate stimulated luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and GABA release and inhibited dopamine release through interaction with NMDA receptors. It increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and its effects on LHRH and hypothalamic GABA release were blunted when NOS was inhibited. In the posterior pituitary gland, D-aspartate inhibited GABA release but had no effect on dopamine or alpha-MSH release. We report that D-aspartate differentially affects the release of hypothalamic and posterior pituitary factors involved in the regulation of pituitary hormone secretion.
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ABSTRACT: D-Aspartate (D-Asp) is an endogenous amino acid in the central nervous and reproductive systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. High concentrations of D-Asp are found in distinct anatomical locations, suggesting that it has specific physiological roles in animals. Many of the characteristics of D-Asp have been documented, including its tissue and cellular distribution, formation and degradation, as well as the responses elicited by D-Asp application. D-Asp performs important roles related to nervous system development and hormone regulation; in addition, it appears to act as a cell-to-cell signaling molecule. Recent studies have shown that D-Asp fulfills many, if not all, of the definitions of a classical neurotransmitter-that the molecule's biosynthesis, degradation, uptake, and release take place within the presynaptic neuron, and that it triggers a response in the postsynaptic neuron after its release. Accumulating evidence suggests that these criteria are met by a heterogeneous distribution of enzymes for D-Asp's biosynthesis and degradation, an appropriate uptake mechanism, localization within synaptic vesicles, and a postsynaptic response via an ionotropic receptor. Although D-Asp receptors remain to be characterized, the postsynaptic response of D-Asp has been studied and several L-glutamate receptors are known to respond to D-Asp. In this review, we discuss the current status of research on D-Asp in neuronal and neuroendocrine systems, and highlight results that support D-Asp's role as a signaling molecule.Amino Acids 08/2012; 43(5):1873-86. · 3.91 Impact Factor
- International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 01/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Recent evidence has shown that D-aspartate modulates hormone secretion in the vertebral neuroendocrine system. Because only D-aspartate oxidase (DDO) can degrade D-aspartate, we determined DDO localisation in the pituitary and pineal glands to elucidate the control mechanisms of local D-aspartate concentration. Brain tissues and pituitary and pineal glands of the female pigs contained a similar DDO activity of 0.38-0.66 U/g protein. However, approximately ten-fold higher concentrations of D-aspartate (0.27-0.35 μmol/g protein) were found in both glands. To determine the distribution of immunoreactive DDO, we made a rabbit polyclonal antibody specific to porcine DDO using a recombinant porcine enzyme. DDO immunoreactivity was found in the cytoplasm of a subgroup of cells in the anterior and intermediate lobes, in a part of nerve processes and terminals in the posterior lobe, and in the cytoplasm of a small group of pinealocytes. We used dual-label immunocytochemistry to determine which pituitary hormones colocalise with DDO, and whether DDO and D-aspartate immunoreactivity is reciprocal. In the pituitary gland, almost all proopiomelanocortin-positive cells colocalised DDO, whereas only growth hormone-positive cells colocalised D-aspartate. D-aspartate immunoreactivity was not detected where DDO immunoreactivity was found. The present study suggests that DDO plays important roles to prevent undesirable off-target action of D-aspartate by strictly controlling local D-aspartate concentration in the pituitary and pineal glands.Journal of Neuroendocrinology 11/2010; 22(11):1165-72. · 3.33 Impact Factor