Since D-aspartate stimulates prolactin and LH release, our objective was to determine whether D-aspartate modifies the release of hypothalamic and posterior pituitary factors involved in the control of their secretion and whether its effects on these tissues are exerted through NMDA receptors and mediated by nitric oxide. In the hypothalamus, D-aspartate stimulated luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and GABA release and inhibited dopamine release through interaction with NMDA receptors. It increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and its effects on LHRH and hypothalamic GABA release were blunted when NOS was inhibited. In the posterior pituitary gland, D-aspartate inhibited GABA release but had no effect on dopamine or alpha-MSH release. We report that D-aspartate differentially affects the release of hypothalamic and posterior pituitary factors involved in the regulation of pituitary hormone secretion.
"It has been observed that D-Asp in rats is capable of eliciting the release of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus, the luteinizing hormone (LH) and the growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary gland, and testosterone from the testes . In addition, D-Asp occurs in a high concentration in the pineal gland , where it modulates melatonin synthesis in rat pinealocytes , and is implicated in the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, GABA, and in dopamine release . In sheep, D-Asp is endogenously present in tissues and is electively stored in endocrine glands, such as the pituitary, and in the brain after its administration. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: D-aspartic acid is an amino acid present in neuroendocrine tissues of invertebrates and vertebrates, including rats and humans. Here we investigated the effect of this amino acid on the release of LH and testosterone in the serum of humans and rats. Furthermore, we investigated the role of D-aspartate in the synthesis of LH and testosterone in the pituitary and testes of rats, and the molecular mechanisms by which this amino acid triggers its action.
For humans: A group of 23 men were given a daily dose of D-aspartate (DADAVIT) for 12 days, whereas another group of 20 men were given a placebo. For rats: A group of 10 rats drank a solution of either 20 mM D-aspartate or a placebo for 12 days. Then LH and testosterone accumulation was determined in the serum and D-aspartate accumulation in tissues. The effects of D-aspartate on the synthesis of LH and testosterone were gauged on isolated rat pituitary and Leydig cells. Tissues were incubated with D-aspartate, and then the concentration (synthesis) of LH and cGMP in the pituitary and of testosterone and cAMP in the Leydig cells was determined.
In humans and rats, sodium D-aspartate induces an enhancement of LH and testosterone release. In the rat pituitary, sodium D-aspartate increases the release and synthesis of LH through the involvement of cGMP as a second messenger, whereas in rat testis Leydig cells, it increases the synthesis and release of testosterone and cAMP is implicated as second messenger. In the pituitary and in testes D-Asp is synthesized by a D-aspartate racemase which convert L-Asp into D-Asp. The pituitary and testes possesses a high capacity to trapping circulating D-Asp from hexogen or endogen sources.
D-aspartic acid is a physiological amino acid occurring principally in the pituitary gland and testes and has a role in the regulation of the release and synthesis of LH and testosterone in humans and rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Probes for the occurrence of endogenous D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) in the neural complex and gonads of a protochordate, the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, have confirmed the presence of these two excitatory amino acids and their involvement in hormonal activity. A hormonal pathway similar to that which occurs in vertebrates has been discovered. In the cerebral ganglion D-Asp is synthesized from L-Asp by an aspartate racemase. Then, D-Asp is transferred through the blood stream into the neural gland where it gives rise to NMDA by means of an NMDA synthase. NMDA, in turn, passes from the neuronal gland into the gonads where it induces the synthesis and release of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The GnRH in turn modulates the release and synthesis of testosterone and progesterone in the gonads, which are implicated in reproduction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we report the finding of high concentrations of D-Asp (D-aspartate) in the retina of the cephalopods Sepia officinalis, Loligo vulgaris and Octopus vulgaris. D-Asp increases in concentration in the retina and optic lobes as the animal develops. In neonatal S. officinalis, the concentration of D-Asp in the retina is 1.8+/-0.2 micromol/g of tissue, and in the optic lobes it is 5.5+/-0.4 micromol/g of tissue. In adult animals, D-Asp is found at a concentration of 3.5+/-0.4 micromol/g in retina and 16.2+/-1.5 micromol/g in optic lobes (1.9-fold increased in the retina, and 2.9-fold increased in the optic lobes). In the retina and optic lobes of S. officinalis, the concentration of D-Asp, L-Asp (L-aspartate) and L-Glu (L-glutamate) is significantly influenced by the light/dark environment. In adult animals left in the dark, these three amino acids fall significantly in concentration in both retina (approx. 25% less) and optic lobes (approx. 20% less) compared with the control animals (animals left in a diurnal/nocturnal physiological cycle). The reduction in concentration is in all cases statistically significant (P=0.01-0.05). Experiments conducted in S. officinalis by using D-[2,3-3H]Asp have shown that D-Asp is synthesized in the optic lobes and is then transported actively into the retina. D-aspartate racemase, an enzyme which converts L-Asp into D-Asp, is also present in these tissues, and it is significantly decreased in concentration in animals left for 5 days in the dark compared with control animals. Our hypothesis is that the dicarboxylic amino acids, D-Asp, L-Asp and L-Glu, play important roles in vision.
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