Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning among children in Jakarta, Indonesia.

Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd Mailstop E-19, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
Science of The Total Environment (Impact Factor: 4.1). 02/2003; 301(1-3):75-85. DOI: 10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00297-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The phase-out of leaded gasoline began in Jakarta, Indonesia on July 1, 2001. We evaluated mean blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated BLLs of Jakarta school children and assessed risk factors for lead exposure in these children before the beginning of the phase-out activities. The study involved a population-based, cross-sectional blood lead survey that included capillary blood lead sampling and a brief questionnaire on risk factors for lead poisoning. A cluster survey design was used. Forty clusters, defined as primary schools in Jakarta, and 15 2nd- and 3rd-grade children in each cluster were randomly selected for participation in the study. The average age of children in this study was 8.6 years (range 6-12) and the geometric mean BLL of the children was 8.6 microg/dl (median: 8.6 microg/dl; range: 2.6-24.1 microg/dl) (n=397). Thirty-five percent of children had BLLs > or =10 microg/dl and 2.4% had BLLs > or =20 microg/dl. Approximately one-fourth of children had BLLs 10-14.9 microg/dl. In multivariate models, level of education of the child's primary caregiver, water collection method, home varnishing and occupational recycling of metals, other than lead, by a family member were predictors of log BLLs after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs of children who lived near a highway or major intersection were significantly higher than those of children who lived near a street with little or no traffic when level of education was not included in the model. Water collection method was a significant predictor of BLLs > or =10 microg/dl after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs in children in this study were moderately high and consistent with BLLs of children in other countries where leaded gasoline is used. With the phase-out of leaded gasoline, BLLs of children in Jakarta are expected to rapidly decline as they have in other countries that have phased lead out of gasoline.

Download full-text


Available from: Robert L Jones, Jul 02, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The principal objectives of this study are to (a) investigate the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs) in children of three major cities of Nigeria with different levels of industrial pollution; (b) identify the environmental, social and behavioral risk factors for the EBLLs in the children; and (c) explore the association between malaria (endemic in the study areas) and EBLLs in the pediatric population. The study involved 653 children aged 2-9 years (average, 3.7 years). The mean blood lead level (BLL) for the children was 8.9+/-4.8microg/dL, the median value was 7.8microg/dL, and the range was 1-52microg/dL. About 25% of the children had BLL greater than 10microg/dL. There were important differences in BLLs across the three cities, with the average value in Ibadan (9.9+/-5.2microg/dL) and Nnewi (8.3+/-3.5microg/dL) being higher than that in Port Harcourt (4.7+/-2.2micro/dL). Significant positive associations were found between BLL and a child's town of residence (p<0.001), age of the child (p=0.004), length of time the child played outside (p<0.001), presence of pets in a child's home (p=0.023), but negatively with educational level of caregiver (p<0.001). This study is one of the first to find a significant negative association between BLL and malaria in a pediatric population, and this association remained significant after controlling for confounding diseases and symptoms. The shared environmental and socio-demographic risks factors for lead exposure and Plasmodium (most common malaria parasites) infection in urban areas of Nigeria are discussed along with possible ways that lead exposure may influence the host response to infection with malarial parasites.
    International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 07/2008; 211(5-6):591-605. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2008.05.001 · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional anemia in developed and developing countries. In addition, lead intoxication especially in developing countries is an increasing risk for health, because of rapid urbanization and consumption of leaded fuels. Many studies particularly in children have showed a correlation between iron deficiency and high blood lead concentration. In this study, we have evaluated this association in workers of a car battery manufacturer. This research was performed on workers who exposed to lead in a factory of car battery of Mashhad, Iran in 2006. Hematological tests including complete blood counts (CBC) and serum ferritin concentration (radioimmunoassay method) were measured. Blood lead concentration (BLC) was estimated by heated graphite atomization technique of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elemer, Model 3030). Results analyzed by the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, version 11.5), using statistical tests including independent samples t-test, Mann- Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. P value < 0.05 was considered as a significant level. Based on clinical (lead line) and laboratory observation, all workers had lead intoxication with mean BLC of 32.2 +/- 13.7 mu g/dl. There were no statistical significant difference on mean BLC in iron deficient (n = 11) and non iron deficient workers (n = 78). There were also no significant correlation between BLC and either serum ferritin or blood hemoglobin (r = 0.18, p value = 0.091 and r = 0.051, p value = 0.682, respectively). In this study, we did not observe any correlation between BLC with either serum ferritin or hemoglobin or the other blood parameters. However, similar research in a larger population is required to make a general conclusion.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this pilot study, conducted in summer 2002, the authors measured blood lead levels (BLLs) for 118 subjects in the city of Trujillo, Peru, where leaded gasoline is in the process of being phased out. Subjects included bus drivers, combi (minivan) drivers, street vendors, newspaper vendors, traffic police, taxi drivers, gas station attendants, children living both near and distant from gas stations, pregnant women, and office workers (controls). The highest BLLs were 9.2 microg/dl and 9.3 microg/dl from a child who lived near a gas station and from a traffic policeman, respectively; however, all BLLs were below the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's advisory level of concern (10 microg/dl). Office workers (n = 8) and pregnant women (n = 36) had significantly lower BLLs (geometric mean +/- standard deviation = 2.1 +/- 0.7 microg/dl, p < 0.022; and 2.5 +/- 1.1 microg/dl, p < 0.008, respectively) than total traffic-exposed workers (n = 48; 3.2 +/- 1.8 microg/dl). BLLs of children living near gas stations (n = 17; 3.7 +/- 2.2 microg/dl) were marginally higher (p = 0.07) than for children not living near gas stations (n = 9; 2.9 +/- 1.1 microg/dl). The study was limited by small sample size and the fact that the data were based on a convenience sample not fully representative of the cohorts studied. Nevertheless, the authors' findings suggest that leaded gasoline use in Trujillo continues to affect BLLs in traffic-exposed populations.
    Archives of Environmental Health An International Journal 07/2004; 59(7):359-62. DOI:10.3200/AEOH.59.7.359-362