Parkin protects against the toxicity associated with mutant alpha-synuclein: proteasome dysfunction selectively affects catecholaminergic neurons.
ABSTRACT One hypothesis for the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is that subsets of neurons are vulnerable to a failure in proteasome-mediated protein turnover. Here we show that overexpression of mutant alpha-synuclein increases sensitivity to proteasome inhibitors by decreasing proteasome function. Overexpression of parkin decreases sensitivity to proteasome inhibitors in a manner dependent on parkin's ubiquitin-protein E3 ligase activity, and antisense knockdown of parkin increases sensitivity to proteasome inhibitors. Mutant alpha-synuclein also causes selective toxicity to catecholaminergic neurons in primary midbrain cultures, an effect that can be mimicked by the application of proteasome inhibitors. Parkin is capable of rescuing the toxic effects of mutant alpha-synuclein or proteasome inhibition in these cells. Therefore, parkin and alpha-synuclein are linked by common effects on a pathway associated with selective cell death in catecholaminergic neurons.
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ABSTRACT: Disruption of the dynamic properties of mitochondria (fission, fusion, transport, degradation, and biogenesis) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Parkin, the product of gene PARK2 whose mutation causes familial PD, has been linked to mitochondrial quality control via its role in regulating mitochondrial dynamics, including mitochondrial degradation via mitophagy. Models using mitochondrial stressors in numerous cell types have elucidated a PINK1-dependent pathway whereby Parkin accumulates on damaged mitochondria and targets them for mitophagy. However, the role Parkin plays in regulating mitochondrial homeostasis specifically in neurons has been less clear. We examined whether a stressor linked to neurodegeneration, glutamate excitotoxicity, elicits Parkin-mitochondrial translocation and mitophagy in neurons. We found that brief, acute exposure to glutamate causes Parkin translocation to mitochondria in neurons, in a calcium- and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent manner. In addition, we found that Parkin accumulates on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial/ER junctions following excitotoxicity, supporting a role for Parkin in mitochondrial-ER crosstalk in mitochondrial homeostasis. Despite significant Parkin-mitochondria translocation, however, we did not observe mitophagy under these conditions. To further investigate, we examined the role of glutamate-induced oxidative stress in Parkin-mitochondria accumulation. Unexpectedly, we found that glutamate-induced accumulation of Parkin on mitochondria was promoted by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), and that co-treatment with NAC facilitated Parkin-associated mitophagy. These results suggest the possibility that mitochondrial depolarization and oxidative damage may have distinct pathways associated with Parkin function in neurons, which may be critical in understanding the role of Parkin in neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.Neurobiology of Disease 12/2014; · 5.62 Impact Factor
Article: Caught in the Act[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Previous reports on Parkinson's disease indicate that genetic mutations in α-synuclein result in the aberrant accumulation of this protein, causing toxic gain of function leading to the development of Parkinson's. A recent report on the Iowan kindred, an extended pedigree with an autosomal dominant form of this disease, provides new mechanistic insight into Parkinson's disease by showing that an elevation in wild-type α-synuclein protein is sufficient to develop the early-onset form of the disorder. This review discusses how insights gained from these studies of α-synuclein may direct future research into Parkinson's disease.Neuron 10/2003; 40(3):453-456. · 15.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PARK2, a gene associated with Parkinson disease, is a tumor suppressor in human malignancies. Here, we show that c.823C>T (p.Arg275Trp), a germline mutation in PARK2, is present in a family with eight cases of lung cancer. The resulting amino acid change, p.Arg275Trp, is located in the highly conserved RING finger 1 domain of PARK2, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Upon further analysis, the c.823C>T mutation was detected in three additional families affected by lung cancer. The effect size for PARK2 c.823C>T (odds ratio = 5.24) in white individuals was larger than those reported for variants from lung cancer genome-wide association studies. These data implicate this PARK2 germline mutation as a genetic susceptibility factor for lung cancer. Our results provide a rationale for further investigations of this specific mutation and gene for evaluation of the possibility of developing targeted therapies against lung cancer in individuals with PARK2 variants by compensating for the loss-of-function effect caused by the associated variation. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.The American Journal of Human Genetics 01/2015; · 11.20 Impact Factor