Differential regulation by glucocorticoid of interleukin-13-induced eosinophilia, hyperresponsiveness, and goblet cell hyperplasia in mouse airways.
ABSTRACT Interleukin (IL)-13 induces important features of bronchial asthma such as eosinophilic infiltration, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and mucus hypersecretion. Although glucocorticoids suppress airway inflammation and remain the most effective therapy for asthma, the effects of glucocorticoids on the IL-13-dependent features are unknown. We studied the effects of dexamethasone on eotaxin production, eosinophil accumulation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and AHR after IL-13 administration into the airways of mice in vivo. MUC5AC gene expression, a marker of goblet cell hyperplasia, was also analyzed. IL-13 alone dose dependently induced AHR. Treatment with dexamethasone inhibited eotaxin expression and completely abolished eosinophil accumulation, but it did not affect AHR, MUC5AC overexpression, or goblet cell hyperplasia induced by IL-13. The effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on IL-13-induced AHR were also examined. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha did not affect AHR despite marked enhancement of eosinophil infiltration in IL-13-treated mice. These findings suggest that glucocorticoid is not sufficient to suppress IL-13-induced AHR or goblet cell hyperplasia and that eotaxin expression and eosinophilic inflammation do not have a causal relationship to the induction of AHR or goblet cell hyperplasia by IL-13. Control of steroid-resistant features induced by IL-13, including AHR and mucus production, may provide new therapeutic modalities for asthma.
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ABSTRACT: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways and there are no preventions or cures. Inflammatory cells through the secretion of cytokines and pro-inflammatory molecules are thought to play a critical role in pathogenesis. Type 2 CD4(+) lymphocytes (Th2 cells) and their cytokines predominate in mild to moderate allergic asthma, whereas severe steroid-resistant asthma has more of a mixed Th2/Th1 phenotype with a Th17 component. Other immune cells, particularly neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells, as well structural cells such as epithelial and airway smooth muscle cells also produce disease-associated cytokines in asthma. Increased levels of these immune cells and cytokines have been identified in clinical samples and their potential role in disease demonstrated in studies using mouse models of asthma. Clinical trials with inhibitors of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-4, -5 and tumour necrosis factor-α have had success in some studies but not others. This may reflect the design of the clinical trials, including treatments regimes and the patient population included in these studies. IL-13, -9 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor are currently being evaluated in clinical trials or preclinically and the outcome of these studies is eagerly awaited. Roles for IL-25, -33, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, interferon-γ, IL-17 and -27 in the regulation of asthma are just emerging, identifying new ways to treat inflammation. Careful interpretation of results from mouse studies will inform the development and application of therapeutic approaches for asthma. The most effective approaches may be combination therapies that suppress multiple cytokines and a range of redundant and disconnected pathways that separately contribute to asthma pathogenesis. Astute application of these approaches may eventually lead to the development of effective asthma therapeutics. Here we review the current state of knowledge in the field.British Journal of Pharmacology 05/2011; 163(1):81-95. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01219.x · 4.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper is an overview of the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and cellular and molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid resistant asthma. It addresses the clinical definition and rationale for the diagnosis of therapy resistant asthma. It purports that, since glucocorticoid resistant asthmatics are not globally physiologically glucocorticoid resistant, then the phenomenon is most likely acquired, probably in immune cells (and most probably in T cells and monocyte/macrophages), as a result of local inflammatory and environmental influences. The molecular mechanisms which have been uncovered to date which could account for glucocorticoid resistance are discussed, in particular the roles of AP-1 and p38 MAP kinase signaling, the role of the beta-isoform of the glucocorticoid receptor and the role of histone proteins and DNA folding. Finally, there are suggestions for clinical management of these patients based on accumulated evidence.Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 11/2007; 3(5):771-87. · 1.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: B7-H1 (PD-L1) and B7-DC (PD-L2) are the ligands for programmed death-1 (PD-1), which is a member of the CD28/CTLA-4 family and has been implicated in peripheral tolerance. We investigated the roles of B7-H1 and B7-DC in a murine OVA-induced allergic asthma model. B7-H1 was constitutively expressed on dendritic cells, macrophages, B cells, and T cells in the lungs of naive mice, and its expression could be dramatically increased after allergen challenge. In contrast, B7-DC expression was scarcely expressed on dendritic cells in naive mice, but was up-regulated after allergen challenge, although the up-regulation of B7-DC expression on macrophages was minimal. Treatment of mice with anti-B7-DC mAb at the time of allergen challenge, but not at the time of sensitization, significantly increased their airway hyper-reactivity and eosinophilia. Such treatment also resulted in the increased production of IL-5 and IL-13, and decreased IFN- production in the lungs and draining lymph node cells. These changes were diminished when mice were depleted of IFN- by anti-IFN- mAb pretreatment. Interestingly, treatment with anti-B7-H1 or anti-PD-1 mAb did not significantly affect the asthmatic response. These results suggest a unique role for B7-DC in the regulation of asthmatic response through an IFN--dependent, but PD-1-independent, mechanism. The Journal of Im- munology, 2004, 172: 2530 -2541.