Plant-like biosynthetic pathways in bacteria: from benzoic acid to chalcone.
ABSTRACT Although phenylpropanoids and flavonoids are common plant natural products, these major classes of biologically active secondary metabolites are largely absent from bacteria. The ubiquitous plant enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone synthase (CHS) are key biosynthetic catalysts in phenylpropanoid and flavonoid assembly, respectively. Until recently, few bacterial counterparts were known, thus reflecting the dearth of these plant natural products in bacteria. This review highlights our progress on the biochemical and genetic characterization of recently identified streptomycete biosynthetic pathways to benzoic acid and type III polyketide synthase (PKS)-derived products. The sediment-derived bacterium "Streptomyces maritimus" produces benzoyl-CoA in a plant-like manner from phenylalanine involving a PAL-mediated reaction through cinnamic acid during the biosynthesis of the polyketide antibiotic enterocin. All but one of the genes encoding benzoyl-CoA biosynthesis in "S. maritimus" have been cloned, sequenced, and inactivated, providing a model for benzoate biosynthesis not only in this bacterium, but in plants where benzoic acid is an important constituent of many products. The recent discovery that bacteria harbor homodimeric PKSs belonging to the plant CHS superfamily of condensing enzymes has further linked the biosynthetic capabilities of plants and bacteria. A bioinformatics approach led to the prediction that the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) contains up to three type III PKSs. Biochemical analysis of one of the recombinant type III PKSs from S. coelicolor demonstrated activity as a 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene synthase (THNS). A homology model of THNS based upon the known three-dimensional structure of CHS was constructed to explore the structural and mechanistic details of this new subclass of bacterial PKSs.
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ABSTRACT: The photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodospirillum centenum, has a flexible life cycle that permits it to survive starvation as dormant cyst cells. Previous studies have identified some of the key regulators for encystment and demonstrated that the control of development is intricate. This complexity may arise from the need to integrate several environmental signals to mediate a switch from one mode of energy metabolism to another and to ensure that a transition to dormancy is initiated only when necessary. We searched for additional regulators of development by screening for encystment deficient strains after subjecting wild type R. centenum to mini-Tn5 mutagenesis. Analysis of "hypo-cyst" strains led to the identification of two genes that encode putative hybrid histidine kinases (cyd1 and cyd2). Cells with deletions of either gene fail to form cysts under conditions that normally induce development. Furthermore, the deletion strains exhibit altered swarming behavior suggesting that Cyd1 and Cyd2 affect behaviors utilized when the organism is attached to a substrate.Archives of Microbiology 03/2011; 193(3):209-22. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is up-regulated as a result of the t(4;14)(p16;q32) translocation that occurs in up to 20% of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Recent studies have demonstrated that up-regulation of FGFR3 promotes cell survival, growth and drug resistance in malignant plasma cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, inhibition of FGFR3 signalling is potential target for the chemotherapeutic intervention in t(4;14) MM. Small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (PD173074, sunitinib (SU-11248), vandetanib (ZD6474) and vatalanib (PTK-787)) with varying degrees of inhibitory activity and selectivity against FGFR, were assessed in Ba/f3 cells expressing ZNF198-FGFR1 and MM cell lines. Cell viability, FGFR3 and ZNF198-FGFR1 phosphorylation and apoptosis were evaluated by growth inhibition assays, immunoblotting and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, respectively. An in vivo study was performed with sunitinib in t(4;14)-positive and t(4;14)-negative human MM tumour xenograft models. PD173074 and sunitinib differentially inhibited the growth of Ba/f3 cells expressing ZNF198-FGFR1 (GI(50)=10 nM and 730 nM, versus GI(50) >1 μM and 2.7 μM for parental cells; p<0.0001) and t(4;14) positive MM cell lines (GI(50)=4-10 μM and 1-3 μM, versus GI(50)=14-15 μM and 4-5 μM for t(4;14) negative MM cells; p≤0.002). In addition, both PD173074 and sunitinib inhibited the activation of FGFR3 in t(4;14)-positive MM cells. PD173074 and sunitinib induced an apoptotic response in a concentration and time-dependent manner in a t(4;14)-positive (PD174073 and sunitinib) but not a t(4;14)-negative MM cell line (sunitinib only); however, in in vivo tumours derived from the same cell lines, sunitinib was only active in the t(4;14)-negative model. These data demonstrate that PD173074 and sunitinib are inhibitors of FGFR3 in MM cell lines, and that sunitinib has in vivo activity in a human MM tumour xenograft model. However, caution should be exercised in using the t(4;14) translocation as a predictive biomarker for patient selection in clinical trials with sunitinib.Leukemia research 02/2011; 35(9):1233-40. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) biosynthesis is a complex and coordinate cellular process executed by petal limb cells of a Petunia×hybrida cv. 'Mitchell Diploid' (MD) plant. In MD flowers, the majority of benzenoid volatile compounds are derived from a core phenylpropanoid pathway intermediate by a coenzyme A (CoA) dependent, β-oxidative scheme. Metabolic flux analysis, reverse genetics, and biochemical characterizations of key enzymes in this pathway have supported this putative concept. However, the theoretical first enzymatic reaction, which leads to the production of cinnamoyl-CoA, has only been physically demonstrated in a select number of bacteria like Streptomyces maritimus through mutagenesis and recombinant protein production. A transcript hasbeen cloned and characterized from MD flowers that shares high homology with an Arabidopsis thaliana transcript ACYL-ACTIVATING ENZYME11 (AtAAE11) and the S. maritimus ACYL-COA:LIGASE (SmEncH). In MD, the PhAAE transcript accumulates in a very similar manner as bona fide FVBP network genes, i.e. high levels in an open flower petal and ethylene regulated. In planta, PhAAE is localized to the peroxisome. Upon reduction of PhAAE transcript through a stable RNAi approach, transgenic flowers emitted a reduced level of all benzenoid volatile compounds. Together, the data suggest that PhAAE may be responsible for the activation of t-cinnamic acid, which would be required for floral volatile benzenoid production in MD.Journal of Experimental Botany 07/2012; 63(13):4821-33. · 5.24 Impact Factor