Pathways leading to apoptotic neurodegeneration following trauma to the developing rat brain.
ABSTRACT Trauma triggers diffuse apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing rat brain. To explore the pathogenesis of this phenomenon we investigated the involvement of three possible mechanisms: death receptor activation, activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway by cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, and changes in trophic support provided by endogenous neurotrophins. We detected a decrease in the expression of bcl-2 and bcl-x(L), two antiapoptotic proteins that decrease mitochondrial membrane permeability, an increase in cytochrome c immunoreactivity in the cytosolic fraction, and an activation of caspase-9 in brain regions which show apoptotic neurodegeneration following percussion brain trauma in 7-day-old rats. Increase in the expression of the death receptor Fas was revealed by RT-PCR analysis, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry, as was activation of caspase-8 in cortex and thalamus. Apoptotic neurodegeneration was accompanied by an increase in the expression of BDNF and NT-3 in vulnerable brain regions. The pancaspase inhibitor z-VAD.FMK ameliorated apoptotic neurodegeneration with a therapeutic time window of up to 8 h after trauma. These findings suggest involvement of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in neurodegeneration following trauma to the developing rat brain. Upregulation of neurotrophin expression may represent an endogenous mechanism that limits this apoptotic process.
- SourceAvailable from: Vishva Dixit[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Using the cytoplasmic domain of Fas in the yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified a novel interacting protein, FADD, which binds Fas and Fas-FD5, a mutant of Fas possessing enhanced killing activity, but not the functionally inactive mutants Fas-LPR and Fas-FD8. FADD contains a death domain homologous to the death domains of Fas and TNFR-1. A point mutation in FADD, analogous to the lpr mutation of Fas, abolishes its ability to bind Fas, suggesting a death domain to death domain interaction. Overexpression of FADD in MCF7 and BJAB cells induces apoptosis, which, like Fas-induced apoptosis, is blocked by CrmA, a specific inhibitor of the interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme. These findings suggest that FADD may play an important role in the proximal signal transduction of Fas.Cell 06/1995; 81(4):505-12. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurotrophins activate several different intracellular signaling pathways that in some way exert neuroprotective effects. In vitro studies of sympathetic and cerebellar granule neurons have demonstrated that the survival effects of neurotrophins can be mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) pathway. Neurotrophin-mediated protection of other neuronal types in vitro can be mediated via the extracellular signal-related protein kinase (ERK) pathway. Whether either of these pathways contributes to the neuroprotective effects of neurotrophins in the brain in vivo has not been determined. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is markedly neuroprotective against neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (H-I) brain injury in vivo. We assessed the role of the ERK and PI3-kinase pathways in neonatal H-I brain injury in the presence and absence of BDNF. Intracerebroventricular administration of BDNF to postnatal day 7 rats resulted in phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and the PI3-kinase substrate AKT within minutes. Effects were greater on ERK activation and occurred in neurons. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK, but not the PI3-kinase pathway, inhibited the ability of BDNF to block H-I-induced caspase-3 activation and tissue loss. These findings suggest that neuronal ERK activation in the neonatal brain mediates neuroprotection against H-I brain injury, a model of cerebral palsy.Journal of Neuroscience 09/2000; 20(15):5775-81. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The interleukin 1beta converting enzyme (ICE) family plays a pivotal role in programmed cell death and has been implicated in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. During reperfusion after filamentous middle cerebral artery occlusion, ICE-like cleavage products and tissue immunoreactive interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) levels increased in ischemic mouse brain. Ischemic injury decreased after intracerebroventricular injections of ICE-like protease inhibitors, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD.FMK), acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethylketone, or a relatively selective inhibitor of CPP32-like caspases, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethylketone, but not a cathepsin B inhibitor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Ala-fluoromethylketone. z-VAD.FMK decreased ICE-like cleavage products and tissue immunoreactive IL-1beta levels in ischemic mouse brain and reduced tissue damage when administered to rats as well. Only z-VAD.FMK and acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethylketone reduced brain swelling, and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethylketone did not attenuate the ischemia-induced increase in tissue IL-1beta levels. The three cysteine protease inhibitors significantly improved behavioral deficits, thereby showing that functional recovery of ischemic neuronal tissue can follow blockade of enzymes associated with apoptotic cell death. Finally, we examined the effect of z-VAD.FMK on excitotoxicity and found that it protected against alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate-induced or to a lesser extent N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced excitotoxic brain damage. Thus, ICE-like and CPP32-like caspases contribute to mechanisms of cell death in ischemic and excitotoxic brain injury and provide therapeutic targets for stroke and neurodegenerative brain damage.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/1997; 94(5):2007-12. · 9.74 Impact Factor