Hepatic tolerance of atypical antipsychotic drugs
ABSTRACT The strategy in the choice of antipsychotic agent must take into account the hepatic tolerance according to non-negligible incidence of liver disorders among psychiatric population (presence of risk factors like alcoholism, drugs of abuse intake, polymedication including potentially hepatotoxic drugs.). More than 1 000 drugs have been listed as being responsible of hepatic side effects; 16% of these agents were neuropsychiatric drugs. Antidepressive drugs (tricyclic agents or SSRI), mood stabilizing agents and neuroleptic drugs have been implicated in biological or/and clinical hepatotoxicity. For these reasons, some psychotropic agents have been withdrawn of the pharmaceutical market like alpidem or medifoxamine. Atrium*, sometimes used to correct tremor induced by neuroleptic drugs, has been withdrawn recently, as well. Isolated elevations of hepatic enzymes occur frequently with phenothiazines drugs (frequency evaluated to 20%) but also with other classes of neuroleptic agents, as well. On the contrary, clinical hepatitis have been more rarely described with neuroleptic drugs like phenothiazine agents (0,1-1%) or with haloperidol (0,002%). The definition of hepatotoxicity is based on biological parameters (elevation of alkaline phosphatase enzyme, SGPT, SGOT and GGT) or on clinical abnormalities (hepatitis, jaundice.). Clinical hepatitis could be either cytolytic or cholestatic. Clinical diagnosis and the research of its origin may include many investigations like abdominal ultrasonogram and percutaneous liver biopsy. The present article describes the cases of hepatic disorders reported with AAD (Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs), which are available in France (amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone). This new pharmacological class of antipsychotic drugs has showed great interest to improve negative symptoms of schizophrenia and to reduce disabling side effects like dystonia. According to the bibliographic data available, the following points and information must be clinically taken into account. Frequency of hepatic troubles: according to the bibliographic data, AAD appeared generally well tolerated in most cases. The frequency of hepatic troubles remains in general very low or rare. The cases published were observed with clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone. Nevertheless, some authors have observed higher frequency of hepatic enzymes elevation with some AAD. In an investigation comparing hepatic tolerance of clozapine (n=167) versus haloperidol (n=71), 37,3% of clozapine treated patients showed a relevant SGPT increase versus 16,6% with haloperidol. Nature of the hepatic troubles: among the clinical observations, asymptomatic biological disorders of the hepatic function are generally described but cytolytic or cholestatic hepatitis were reported, as well. Symptomatic hepatic dysfunctions were, sometimes, associated with other disorders like convulsions, pneumonia or malignant syndrome. Thus, hepatic check-up may be relevant in case of significant side-effect outcome. Delay time before the hepatic episode: hepatic injuries generally occurred within the first weeks of treatment but this delay highly varied in the literature from 1 to 8 weeks, 12 days to 5 months, 1 day to 17 months for clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone, respectively. These delay times are very similar to those observed with other psychotropic drugs. Reversibility of the hepatic troubles and rechallenge of the responsible agent: all cases were reversible after the AAD withdrawal except with one patient (39 years old) treated by clozapine (350 mg/day) who developed a fulminant and irreversible hepatitis after 8 weeks of monotherapy. In most cases, the AAD was withdrawn after the hepatic episode according to the significant risk of irreversible alteration. Nevertheless, normalization of hepatic enzymes has been described despite AAD maintenance at the same dosage or after dosage reduction. Rechallenge of clozapine after a first episode was performed for three patients, only one redeveloped a new hepatic disorder. According to different authors, special care is required if maintenance or rechallenge of the agent is indispensable after a first episode of isolated hepatic enzyme elevation (i.e resistance or intolerance to other treatments). In this case, biological and clinical supervision has to be carefully scheduled, which demands a satisfactory compliance from the patient. On the contrary, in case of clinical hepatotoxicity, rechallenge or maintenance is absolutely inadvisable. Mechanism of the hepatic troubles: precise mechanisms of the hepatotoxicity remain unclear. Contrary to phenothiazine drugs, no information is available on the respective rule of the agents and their metabolites. Hypersensitivity syndrome or eosinophilia has been reported, suggesting a possible immuno-allergic mechanism. Presence of risk factors: risk factors have been retrieved, in some observations, like high daily dosage, high plasmatic concentration, age, alcoholism, obesity or antecedent of hepatic disorders like Gilbert syndrome. Special care is advisable with these patients. As hepatotoxicity has been observed after surdosage (or suicide attempt), a hepatic check-up has to be performed in these clinical situations. Co-medication with hepatotoxic drugs may increase the risk as it has been suggested. In many observations, co-medication made difficult the incrimination of the AAD in the hepatic disorders outcome. Monotherapy has the great advantage to make easier the withdrawal of the responsible agent and its substitution. As drugs of abuse like cocaine or ecstasy are notoriously responsible of hepatotoxicity, they represent a probable factor of risk. Moreover, their detection is fundamental during the clinical investigation. Conclusion - Diagnosis of toxic hepatitis is mainly based on the chronology between agent introduction and hepatic disorder onset but other causes must be excluded. Bibliographic data analysis greatly contributes to confirm toxic hepatitis diagnosis. Nevertheless, this article emphasized the limits of bibliographic review to compare drugs towards tolerance. Most of the bibliographic data were case-reports for which it was sometimes difficult to provide absolute evidence of the responsibility of the agent. Moreover, spontaneous notification to health national administration is rarely systematic, in particular with isolated elevation of hepatic enzymes, and even more rarely published in international reviews. Nevertheless, according to the present data available in the literature, systematic and regular hepatic survey does not seem necessary in absence of risk factors. As for other side effects, which may occur more or less rapidly, great advantages may be obtained from psycho-education programs associating the patients in order to detect the first symptoms. Because little long-term hepatic follow-up comparing AAD is available, controlled studies should be carried out to precise the frequency and the risk factors (covariables) to prevent hepatitis outcome.
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ABSTRACT: This work studied the effects of ethanol in the absence and presence of haloperidol under two experimental conditions. In protocol 1, rats were treated daily with ethanol (4 g/kg, p.o.) for 7 days, and received only haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.) from the 8th day to the 14th day. In protocol 2, animals received ethanol, and the treatment continued with ethanol and haloperidol from the 8th day to the 14th day. Results show increases in alanine transaminase (ALT; 48% and 55%) and aspartate transaminase (AST; 32% and 22%) levels after ethanol or haloperidol (14 days) treatments, as compared with controls. Apolipoprotein A-1 (APO A1) levels were increased by haloperidol, after 7- (148%) but not after 14-day treatments, as compared with controls. Levels of lipoprotein (high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C)) tended to be increased only by ethanol treatment for 14 days. ALT (80%) and AST (43%) levels were increased in the haloperidol plus ethanol group (protocol 2), as compared with controls. However, an increase in APO A1 levels was observed in the haloperidol group pretreated with ethanol (protocol 1), as compared with controls and ethanol 7-day treatments. Triglyceride (TG) levels were increased in the combination of ethanol and haloperidol in protocol 1 (234%) and 2 (106%), as compared with controls. Except for a small decrease in haloperidol groups, with or without ethanol, as related to ethanol alone, no other effect was observed in HDL-C levels. In conclusion, we showed that haloperidol might be effective in moderating lipid alterations caused by chronic alcohol intake.Biochemistry and Cell Biology 05/2004; 82(2):315-20. DOI:10.1139/o03-081 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atypical antipsychotics commonly cause isolated asymptomatic increase in the aminotransferase levels. Among these atypical antipsychotics, mostly transient, asymptomatic increase in hepatic enzymes has been reported with olanzapine, however olanzapine rarely may induce a clinical and/or biological hepatic toxicity. The pathogenesis of olanzapine-associated hepatotoxicity is not well known and is mostly a transient phenomenon. However, substantial and lasting changes may occur and result in symptomatic hepatitis. In the following case report, we report on a 44-year-old female patient diagnosed as Bipolar Disorder Type I, whose liver enzyme levels increased ten fold of normal ranges during the third year of the olanzapine treatment and returned to the normal levels within three weeks after olanzapine discontinuation. Although significant liver enzyme elevations are uncommon during olanzapine treatment, based on reports of serious hepatotoxicity, controlled and longitudinal research are needed to learn side effects of this drug on liver. Clinicians should be aware of possible hepatotoxic effects of atypical antipsychotics and should monitor the liver enzyme levels whenever they feel necessary.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 09/2006; 30(6):1163-6. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2006.03.014 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We conducted a prospective, open study in schizophrenia patients treated with second-generation antipsychotics in order to investigate the risk for elevation of liver enzymes and its correlation to antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Body mass index, serum transaminases, plasma serum levels of the antipsychotic used, and blood cell counts were measured weekly during the first 6 weeks of treatment and monthly thereafter. A considerable proportion of subjects showed an increase beyond normal levels of at least one of the measured transaminases. In all but one case, the elevation of liver enzymes was transient. We found a statistically significant correlation between weight gain and liver enzyme elevation. The group of patients that had gained at least 7% of the baseline body weight showed significantly higher increases of transaminases as compared with those who had gained less than 7% weight. We conclude that antipsychotic-induced elevation of liver enzymes is mostly transient and could be associated with weight gain.Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 11/2006; 26(5):500-3. DOI:10.1097/01.jcp.0000236654.85791.ae · 3.76 Impact Factor