Beta cell neogenesis from ducts and phenotypic conversion of residual islet cells in the adult pancreas of glucose intolerant mice induced by selective alloxan perfusion.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to clarify the pattern of beta cell neogenesis in the alloxan-perfused, beta cells-depleted segment of glucose intolerant mice induced by selective alloxan perfusion. First, duct cells proliferated in the perfused segment, then cells co-expressing multiple islet hormones and transcription factors such as PDX-1, Nkx2.2, Isl1, and Pax6 were observed in duct cells, and newly formed islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) containing beta cells were recognized. In residual beta cell-depleted islets, glucagon or somatostatin and PDX-1 double-positive immature endocrine cells were recognized. Glucagon or somatostatin, insulin and PDX-1 triple-positive cells then appeared and these cells appeared to undergo terminal differentiation into beta cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated at least two different processes of beta cell neogenesis, i.e., formation of new ICCs from ductal epithelium and redifferentiation of residual non-beta islet cells in this model. In addition, transcription factors that appear in the processes of endocrine cell development may also play essential roles during beta cell neogenesis from duct cells.
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ABSTRACT: The endocrine pancreas is organized into clusters of cells called islets of Langerhans comprising four well-defined cell types: alpha beta, delta and PP cells. While recent genetic studies indicate that islet development depends on the function of an integrated network of transcription factors, the specific roles of these factors in early cell-type specification and differentiation remain elusive. Nkx2.2 is a member of the mammalian NK2 homeobox transcription factor family that is expressed in the ventral CNS and the pancreas. Within the pancreas, we demonstrate that Nkx2.2 is expressed in alpha, beta and PP cells, but not in delta cells. In addition, we show that mice homozygous for a null mutation of Nkx2.2 develop severe hyperglycemia and die shortly after birth. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals that the mutant embryos lack insulin-producing beta cells and have fewer glucagon-producing alpha cells and PP cells. Remarkably, in the mutants there remains a large population of islet cells that do not produce any of the four endocrine hormones. These cells express some beta cell markers, such as islet amyloid polypeptide and Pdx1, but lack other definitive beta cell markers including glucose transporter 2 and Nkx6.1. We propose that Nkx2.2 is required for the final differentiation of pancreatic beta cells, and in its absence, beta cells are trapped in an incompletely differentiated state.Development 07/1998; 125(12):2213-21. · 6.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Regeneration of neonatal beta cells after streptozotocin (STZ)-induced destruction may be due to either replication from pre-existing intra-islet beta cells or extra-islet precursor cells. To further investigate this issue, beta-cell growth was analysed in normal and streptozotocin-treated newborn rats (100 micrograms/g body weight) at several time points during the first 20 days of life. Beta cells were identified by insulin immunostaining, non-isotopic in situ hybridization for rat preproinsulin mRNA, and electron microscopy. Their proliferative activity was recorded by bromodeoxyuridine-pulse labelling. Beta-cell size and total volume were determined by computerized morphometry. In normal rats, there was a threefold increase in total beta-cell volume during the first 5 days of life, with no further expansion till day 20. The bromodeoxyuridine labelling index of the intra-islet beta cells was smaller than that of the extra-islet beta cells (2-3% vs 15-20%). Comparison of the cell birth rate, calculated from the beta-cell labelling index, with the observed increase in beta-cell volume suggested that in normal neonatal rats proliferation of the intra-islet beta-cell population could account for only 10% of the observed expansion. Administration of streptozotocin at birth resulted in more than 90% reduction of the total beta-cell volume at day 2 which then increased to 39% of the normal value by day 20. During this period of partial regeneration, which restored normoglycaemia, the labelling index of intra-islet beta cells was higher than in normal rats (9% vs 2%, p < 0.001), whereas no change was seen in the extra-islet beta-cell labelling index.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Diabetologia 12/1994; 37(11):1088-96. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Islet duodenal homeobox 1 (IDX-1/PF-1/STF-1/PDX-1), a homeodomain protein that transactivates the insulin promoter, has been shown by targeted gene ablation to be required for pancreatic development. After 90% pancreatectomy (Px), the adult pancreas regenerates in a process recapitulating embryonic development, starting with a burst of proliferation in the epithelium of the common pancreatic duct. In this model, IDX-1 mRNA was detected by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in total RNA from isolated common pancreatic ducts at levels 10% of those of isolated islets. The IDX-1 mRNA levels were not significantly different for common pancreatic ducts of Px, sham Px, and unoperated rats and did not change with time after surgery. By immunoblot analysis, IDX-1 protein was only faintly detected in these ducts 1 and 7 days after Px or sham Px but was easily detected at 2 and 3 days after Px. Similarly, IDX-1 immunostaining was barely detectable in sham or unoperated ducts but was strong in ducts at 2-3 days after Px. The increase of IDX-1 immunostaining followed that of BrdU incorporation (proliferation). These results indicate a posttranscriptional regulation of the IDX-1 expression in ducts. In addition, islets isolated 3-7 d after Px showed higher IDX-1 protein expression than control islets. Thus, in pancreatic regeneration IDX-1 is upregulated in newly divided ductal cells as well as in islets. The timing of enhanced expression of IDX-1 implies that IDX-1 is not important in the initiation of regeneration but may be involved in the differentiation of ductal cells to beta-cells.Diabetes 04/1999; 48(3):507-13. · 7.90 Impact Factor