Beta cell neogenesis from ducts and phenotypic conversion of residual islet cells in the adult pancreas of glucose intolerant mice induced by selective alloxan perfusion.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to clarify the pattern of beta cell neogenesis in the alloxan-perfused, beta cells-depleted segment of glucose intolerant mice induced by selective alloxan perfusion. First, duct cells proliferated in the perfused segment, then cells co-expressing multiple islet hormones and transcription factors such as PDX-1, Nkx2.2, Isl1, and Pax6 were observed in duct cells, and newly formed islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) containing beta cells were recognized. In residual beta cell-depleted islets, glucagon or somatostatin and PDX-1 double-positive immature endocrine cells were recognized. Glucagon or somatostatin, insulin and PDX-1 triple-positive cells then appeared and these cells appeared to undergo terminal differentiation into beta cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated at least two different processes of beta cell neogenesis, i.e., formation of new ICCs from ductal epithelium and redifferentiation of residual non-beta islet cells in this model. In addition, transcription factors that appear in the processes of endocrine cell development may also play essential roles during beta cell neogenesis from duct cells.
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ABSTRACT: The pancreas is composed of two main compartments consisting of endocrine and exocrine tissues. The majority of the organ is exocrine and responsible for the synthesis of digestive enzymes and for their transport via an intricate ductal system into the duodenum. The endocrine tissue represents less than 2% of the organ and is organized into functional units called islets of Langerhans, comprising alpha-, beta-, delta-, epsilon- and PP-cells, producing the hormones glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, ghrelin and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), respectively. Insulin-producing beta-cells play a central role in the control of the glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, absolute or relative deficiency in beta-cells may ultimately lead to type 1 and/or type 2 diabetes, respectively. One major goal of diabetes research is therefore to understand the molecular mechanisms controlling the development of beta-cells during pancreas morphogenesis, but also those underlying the regeneration of adult injured pancreas, and assess their significance for future cell-based therapy. In this review, we will therefore present new insights into beta-cell development with focus on beta-cell regeneration.Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 10/2010; 21(8):838-44. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pancreas is composed of two compartments that deliver digestive enzymes and endocrine hormones to control the blood sugar level. The endocrine pancreas consists of functional units organized into cell clusters called islets of Langerhans where insulin-producing cells are found in the core and surrounded by glucagon-, somatostatin-, pancreatic polypeptide-, and ghrelin-producing cells. Diabetes is a devastating disease provoked by the depletion or malfunction of insulin-producing beta-cells in the endocrine pancreas. The side effects of diabetes are multiple, including cardiovascular, neuropathological, and kidney diseases. The analyses of transgenic and knockout mice gave major insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling endocrine pancreas genesis. Moreover, the study of animal models of pancreas injury revealed that the pancreas has the propensity to undergo regeneration and opened new avenues to develop novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of diabetes. Thus, beside self-replication of preexisting insulin-producing cells, several potential cell sources in the adult pancreas were suggested to contribute to beta-cell regeneration, including acinar, intraislet, and duct epithelia. However, regeneration in the adult endocrine pancreas is still under controversial debate.ISRN endocrinology. 01/2012; 2012:640956.
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ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes is inhibited in diabetes-prone BioBreeding (BBdp) rats fed a low-antigen hydrolyzed casein (HC) diet. In cereal-fed BBdp rats, islet expansion is defective accompanied by a futile upregulation of islet neogenesis without increased islet mass, due to a subtle blockage in islet cell cycle. We hypothesized that islet growth is enhanced before insulitis in HC-fed young BBdp rats and that islet neogenesis could be stimulated by a trophic factor, islet neogenesis-associated protein (INGAP). beta-Cell homeostasis was analyzed using immunohistochemistry, morphometry, laser capture microdissection and RT-PCR in BBdp rats fed HC or cereal diets. beta-cell proliferation in small and medium islets, and the number and area fraction of medium and large islets were increased in HC-fed animals. In situ islet cell cycle analysis revealed an increased proportion of proliferating S + G2 cells in medium and large islets of 25-45 day HC-fed rats. Expression of the cell cycle inhibitor, p16(INK4a) correlated with islet size and the percentage of p16(INK4a+) beta-cells increased in HC-fed BBdp rats, likely reflecting an increase in large islet area fraction. In HC-fed rats, extra-islet insulin(+) clusters (EIC), insulin(+) duct cells, large islet area fraction, and beta-cell mass were increased. Neurogenin-3 and Pdx-1, markers of beta-cell progenitors, were increased in EIC of weanling HC-fed rats. Daily injection of INGAP (30-45 days) increased the number of small islets, total islets, and insulin(+) cells in small ducts. Thus, in BBdp rats fed a protective HC diet, beta-cell expansion is enhanced through increased beta-cell proliferation and stimulation of islet neogenesis.Journal of Cellular Physiology 08/2010; 224(2):501-8. · 4.22 Impact Factor