.BETA. Cell Neogenesis from Ducts and Phenotypic Conversion of Residual Islet Cells in the Adult Pancreas of Glucose Intolerant Mice Induced by Selective Alloxan Perfusion.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to clarify the pattern of beta cell neogenesis in the alloxan-perfused, beta cells-depleted segment of glucose intolerant mice induced by selective alloxan perfusion. First, duct cells proliferated in the perfused segment, then cells co-expressing multiple islet hormones and transcription factors such as PDX-1, Nkx2.2, Isl1, and Pax6 were observed in duct cells, and newly formed islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) containing beta cells were recognized. In residual beta cell-depleted islets, glucagon or somatostatin and PDX-1 double-positive immature endocrine cells were recognized. Glucagon or somatostatin, insulin and PDX-1 triple-positive cells then appeared and these cells appeared to undergo terminal differentiation into beta cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated at least two different processes of beta cell neogenesis, i.e., formation of new ICCs from ductal epithelium and redifferentiation of residual non-beta islet cells in this model. In addition, transcription factors that appear in the processes of endocrine cell development may also play essential roles during beta cell neogenesis from duct cells.
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- "An alternative approach is to drive adult stem cells residing in the pancreas to restore the functional islet mass. Adult islet mass can be enhanced both by replication of existing islets (Bonner- Weir et al. 1993, Dor et al. 2004) and by neogenic commitment of precursor cells to new islets (Rosenberg et al. 1989, Bonner-Weir et al. 1993, Li et al. 2002, Peters et al. 2005). This latter process is termed islet neogenesis. "
ABSTRACT: Islet neogenesis associated protein (INGAP) promotes the generation of new islet mass in adult animal models. It is not understood what factors control the expression of INGAP. In this study, factors that regulate the expression of INGAP promoter activity are reported. To determine factors that regulate INGAP expression, we previously cloned the promoter region for INGAP. Analysis of the INGAP promoter suggested that candidate regulators of INGAP expression include the transcription factors PDX-1, NeuroD, PAN-1, STAT and AP-1. Using gene addition experiments in the 293 cell line the activity of these transcription factors on an INGAP-promoter construct linked to the beta-galactosidase reporter has been determined. Induction of AP-1 activity or STAT activity using PMA or LIF stimulation respectively, or direct expression of PAN-1 specifically up-regulates INGAP promoter activity. In contrast, co-expression of PDX-1 but not NeuroD inhibits activation of the INGAP-promoter driven by PAN-1, PMA or LIF stimulation. PDX-1 binds directly to the INGAP promoter as determined in electromobility shift and antibody supershift assays. Expression of the INGAP-promoter-reporter construct in the HIT-T15 beta-cell line, a cell line that expresses endogenous PDX-1, did not reveal PMA-mediated stimulation of INGAP promoter activity. HIT-T15 cells however did efficiently transfect (> 68%) and respond (2-fold) to PMA-induced signal transduction to a transfected AP-1-CAT reporter. Partial reduction of PDX-1 expression in HIT-T15 cells was associated with recovery of PMA induced INGAP promoter activity. These data suggest that expression of PDX-1 is associated with a repression of stimulus-induced INGAP promoter activity that appears to be mediated by a direct DNA interaction. These findings implicate PDX-1 in a possible feedback loop to block unbridled islet expansion.Journal of Endocrinology 03/2006; 188(3):611-21. DOI:10.1677/joe.1.06108 · 3.59 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: A PC environment for discrete component digital design[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A description is given of the implementation, operational experience and ongoing refinement of a computer-aided design tool for discrete component digital design in the department of electrical and computer engineering at the Air Force Institution of Technology. Specifically, a graphical user interface, simulation, and artificial intelligence technology are used to aid in the design of digital logic circuits. This is being incorporated into a first-quarter course to provide students with exposure to modern design techniques. The implementation and enhancements of a prototype design for an engineering workstation are described in detailFrontiers in Education Conference, 1988., Proceedings; 11/1988
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ABSTRACT: Substantial new information has accumulated on the mechanisms of secretion, the development, and regulation of the gene expression, and the role of growth factors in the differentiation, growth, and regeneration of the pancreas. Many genes that are required for pancreas formation are active after birth and participate in endocrine and exocrine cell functions. Although the factors that normally regulate the proliferation of the pancreas largely remain elusive, several factors to influence the growth have been identified. It was also reported that the pancreas was sensitive to a number of apoptotic stimuli. The autonomic nervous system influences many of the functions of the body, including the pancreas. In fact, the parasympathetic nervous system and the sympathetic nervous system have opposing effects on insulin secretion from islet beta cells; feeding-induced parasympathetic neural activity to the pancreas stimulates insulin secretion, whereas stress-induced sympathetic neural activity to the pancreas inhibits insulin secretion. Moreover, it has been reported that the autonomic nervous system is one of the important factors that regulate pancreatic regeneration and stimulate the carcinogenesis. The present review focuses on the relationships between the autonomic nervous system and the pancreas, and furthermore, presents evidence of the autonomic nervous system-related pancreatic regeneration and carcinogenesis.Pancreas 09/2004; 29(2):e51-8. DOI:10.1097/00006676-200408000-00019 · 3.01 Impact Factor