Influence of Plasma Viremia on Defects in Number and Immunophenotype of Blood Dendritic Cell Subsets in Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1–Infected Individuals
ABSTRACT Dendritic cells (DCs) are postulated to be involved in transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 to T cells and in stimulation of HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immunity. Blood DCs have been categorized as myeloid (mDC) and plasmacytoid (pDC) subsets, on the basis of differences in phenotype and function. Blood DC subset numbers and expression of costimulatory molecules and HIV-1 coreceptors on DCs were measured in the blood of treated and untreated HIV-1-infected subjects and uninfected control subjects. Absolute numbers of mDCs and pDCs were lower in HIV-1-infected subjects than in control subjects, most significantly in those with active HIV-1 replication. Increased surface expression of costimulatory molecules was observed on both DC subsets in subjects with HIV-1 viremia. Highly active antiretroviral therapy suppression of plasma viremia resulted in increases in blood DC numbers and decreases in DC costimulatory molecule expression. These findings further define the impact of HIV-1 replication on blood DC subsets in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are innate immune cells that are specialized to produce interferon-alpha (IFNα) and participate in activating adaptive immune responses. Although IFNα inhibits HIV-1 (HIV) replication in vitro, pDCs may act as inflammatory and immunosuppressive dendritic cells (DCs) rather than classical antigen-presenting cells during chronic HIV infection in vivo, contributing more to HIV pathogenesis than to protection. Improved understanding of HIV-pDC interactions may yield potential new avenues of discovery to prevent HIV transmission, to blunt chronic immune activation and exhaustion, and to enhance beneficial adaptive immune responses. In this chapter we discuss pDC biology, including pDC development from progenitors, trafficking and localization of pDCs in the body, and signaling pathways involved in pDC activation. We focus on the role of pDCs in HIV transmission, chronic disease progression and immune activation, and immunosuppression through regulatory T cell development. Lastly, we discuss potential future directions for the field which are needed to strengthen our current understanding of the role of pDCs in HIV transmission and pathogenesis.Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 01/2013; 762:71-107. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4614-4433-6_3 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IFN-α is rapidly upregulated in response to viral infections and it is an essential player in innate immunity against viruses. pDCs are the most potent IFN-α-producing cells and serve as an essential link between innate and adaptive immunity. The fate of pDCs in the course of HIV-1 infection is still a matter of debate, and the question of the detrimental role of chronic production of IFN-α remains open. In particular, IFN-α has been shown to induce the expression of the death ligand TRAIL on pDCs, transforming them into killer pDCs that may contribute to the destruction of CD4(+) T cells, the hallmark of HIV-1-induced disease. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the protective and pathogenic roles of both IFN-α and TRAIL in HIV-1 disease.Experimental Cell Research 03/2012; 318(11):1260-8. DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2012.03.012 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hyperactivation of CD4+ T cells is a hallmark of untreated HIV-1 infection. The antigenic specificities of activated CD4+ T cells and the underlying mechanisms leading to their activation remain thus far elusive. We report here that during HIV rebound the dynamics of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells is highly correlated with the dynamics of CD4+ T cells specific for persistent antigens derived from various members of the herpes virus family, whereas CD4 responses towards non-persistent antigens were unaffected by HIV replication. Notably, the dynamics of HIV and herpes viral antigen-specific CD4+ T cells responses correlated with the expression level of activation markers on dendritic cells (DCs) and activated DCs were more potent in restimulating memory T cells. These data strongly suggest that HIV replication costimulates activation of CD4+ T cells specific for persistent herpes viral antigens via activation of DCs. We propose that a large proportion of activated T cells during untreated HIV infection may be specific for herpes viral antigens and identify a novel mechanism contributing to chronic immune activation in untreated HIV-1 infection.EMBO Molecular Medicine 06/2010; 2(6):231-44. DOI:10.1002/emmm.201000075 · 8.25 Impact Factor