The carboxy-terminal domain of the XPC protein plays a crucial role in nucleotide excision repair through interactions with transcription factor IIH.
ABSTRACT The xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) protein specifically involved in genome-wide damage recognition for nucleotide excision repair (NER) was purified as a tight complex with HR23B, one of the two mammalian homologs of RAD23 in budding yeast. This XPC-HR23B complex exhibits strong binding affinity for single-stranded DNA, as well as preferential binding to various types of damaged DNA. To examine the structure-function relationship of XPC, a series of truncated mutant proteins were generated and assayed for various binding activities. The two domains participating in binding to HR23B and damaged DNA, respectively, were mapped within the carboxy-terminal half of XPC, which also contains an evolutionary conserved amino acid sequence homologous to the yeast RAD4 protein. We established that the carboxy-terminal 125 amino acids are dispensable for both HR23B and damaged DNA binding, while interactions with transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) are significantly impaired by truncation of this domain. Furthermore, deletion of the extreme carboxy-terminal domain totally abolished XPC activity in the cell-free NER reaction. These results suggest that following initial damage recognition, the carboxy terminus of XPC may be essential for the recruitment of TFIIH, and that most truncation mutations identified in XP-C patients result in non-functional proteins.
- Science 08/1999; 285(5425):212-3. · 31.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)-C is one of the more common complementation groups of XP, but causative mutations have thus far been reported for only six cases (S. G. Khan et al., J. Investig. Dermatol., 115: 791-796, 1998; L. Li et al., Nat. Genet., 5: 413-417, 1993). We have now extended this analysis by investigating the genomic and coding sequence of the XPC gene, the level of expression of the XPC transcript and the status of the XPC protein in 12 unrelated patients, including all of the 8 Italian XP-C cases identified thus far and in 13 of their parents. Eighteen mutations were detected in the open reading frame of the XPC gene, 13 of which are relevant for the pathological phenotype. The mutations are distributed across the gene, with no indication of any hotspots or founder effects. Only 1 of the 13 relevant changes is a missense mutation, the remainder causing protein truncations as a result of nonsense mutations (3), frameshifts (6), deletion (1) or splicing abnormalities (2). These findings indicate that the XPC gene is not essential for cell proliferation and viability and that mutations causing minor structural alterations may not give an XP phenotype and may not, therefore, be identified clinically. XP13PV was the only patient carrying a missense mutation (Trp690Ser on the paternal allele). This was also the only patient in which the XPC transcript was present at a normal level and the XPC protein was detectable, although at a lower than normal level. No quantitative alterations in the transcript or protein levels were detected in the XP-C heterozygous parents. However, the expression of the normal allele predominated in all of them, except the father of XP13PV, which suggests the existence of a possible mechanism for monitoring the amount of the XPC protein.Cancer Research 05/2000; 60(7):1974-82. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nucleotide excision repair is the principal way by which human cells remove UV damage from DNA. Human cell extracts were fractionated to locate active components, including xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and ERCC factors. The incision reaction was then reconstituted with the purified proteins RPA, XPA, TFIIH (containing XPB and XPD), XPC, UV-DDB, XPG, partially purified ERCC1/XPF complex, and a factor designated IF7. UV-DDB (related to XPE protein) stimulated repair but was not essential. ERCC1- and XPF-correcting activity copurified with an ERCC1-binding polypeptide of 110 kDa that was absent in XP-F cell extract. Complete repair synthesis was achieved by combining these factors with DNA polymerase epsilon, RFC, PCNA, and DNA ligase I. The reconstituted core reaction requires about 30 polypeptides.Cell 04/1995; 80(6):859-68. · 31.96 Impact Factor