The carboxy-terminal domain of the XPC protein plays a crucial role in nucleotide excision repair through interactions with transcription factor IIH.
ABSTRACT The xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) protein specifically involved in genome-wide damage recognition for nucleotide excision repair (NER) was purified as a tight complex with HR23B, one of the two mammalian homologs of RAD23 in budding yeast. This XPC-HR23B complex exhibits strong binding affinity for single-stranded DNA, as well as preferential binding to various types of damaged DNA. To examine the structure-function relationship of XPC, a series of truncated mutant proteins were generated and assayed for various binding activities. The two domains participating in binding to HR23B and damaged DNA, respectively, were mapped within the carboxy-terminal half of XPC, which also contains an evolutionary conserved amino acid sequence homologous to the yeast RAD4 protein. We established that the carboxy-terminal 125 amino acids are dispensable for both HR23B and damaged DNA binding, while interactions with transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) are significantly impaired by truncation of this domain. Furthermore, deletion of the extreme carboxy-terminal domain totally abolished XPC activity in the cell-free NER reaction. These results suggest that following initial damage recognition, the carboxy terminus of XPC may be essential for the recruitment of TFIIH, and that most truncation mutations identified in XP-C patients result in non-functional proteins.
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ABSTRACT: XPC/Rad4 (human/yeast) recruits transcription faction IIH (TFIIH) to the nucleotide excision repair (NER) complex through interactions with its p62/Tfb1 and XPB/Ssl2 subunits. TFIIH then recruits XPG/Rad2 through interactions with similar subunits and the two repair factors appear to be mutually exclusive within the NER complex. Here, we show that Rad4 binds the PH domain of the Tfb1 (Tfb1PH) with high affinity. Structural characterization of a Rad4-Tfb1PH complex demonstrates that the Rad4-binding interface is formed using a motif similar to one used by Rad2 to bind Tfb1PH. In vivo studies in yeast demonstrate that the N-terminal Tfb1-binding motif and C-terminal TFIIH-binding motif of Rad4 are both crucial for survival following exposure to UV irradiation. Together, these results support the hypothesis that XPG/Rad2 displaces XPC/Rad4 from the repair complex in part through interactions with the Tfb1/p62 subunit of TFIIH. The Rad4-Tfb1PH structure also provides detailed information regarding, not only the interplay of TFIIH recruitment to the NER, but also links the role of TFIIH in NER and transcription.Nucleic Acids Research 01/2013; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The transcription factor Oct3/4 is essential to maintain pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. It was reported that the Xpc DNA repair complex is involved in this process. Here we examined the role of Xpc on the transcriptional activation of the target genes by Oct3/4 using the inducible knockout strategy. We found that the removal of the C-terminal region of Xpc, including the interaction sites with Rad23 and Cetn2, showed faint impact on the gene expression profile of ES cells and the functional Xpc-ΔC ES cell lines retained proper gene expression profile as well as pluripotency to contribute chimeric embryos. These data indicated that the C-terminal region of Xpc is dispensable for the transcriptional activity of Oct3/4 in mouse ES cells.FEBS letters 03/2014; · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate effects of gamma ray irradiation in the hermaphroditic fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus larvae, we checked expression of p53, DNA repair, and heat shock protein genes with several antioxidant enzyme activities by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and biochemical methods in response to different doses of gamma radiation. As a result, the level of gamma radiation-induced DNA damage was initiated after 4Gy of radiation, and biochemical and molecular damage became substantial from 8Gy. In particular, several DNA repair mechanism-related genes were significantly modulated in the 6Gy gamma radiation-exposed fish larvae, suggesting that upregulation of such DNA repair genes was closely associated with cell survival after gamma irradiation. The mRNA expression of p53 and most hsps was also significantly upregulated at high doses of gamma radiation related to cellular damage. This finding indicates that gamma radiation can induce oxidative stress with associated antioxidant enzyme activities, and linked to modulation of the expression of DNA repair-related genes as one of the defense mechanisms against radiation damage. This study provides a better understanding of the molecular mode of action of defense mechanisms upon gamma radiation in fish larvae.Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 05/2013; 140-141C:58-67. · 3.12 Impact Factor