Natural selection shaped regional mtDNA variation
Dan Mishmara,b, Eduardo Ruiz-Pesinia,b, Pawel Golikb,c, Vincent Macaulayd, Andrew G. Clarke, Seyed Hosseinib,
Martin Brandona,b, Kirk Easleyf, Estella Cheng, Michael D. Brownb,h, Rem I. Sukerniki, Antonel Olckersj,
and Douglas C. Wallacea,b,k
aCenter for Molecular and Mitochondrial Medicine and Genetics, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3940;bCenter for Mitochondrial Medicine and
fDepartment of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322;cDepartment of Genetics, Warsaw University, Pawinskiego
5a 02-106, Warsaw, Poland;dDepartment of Statistics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3TG, United Kingdom;eDepartment of Molecular Biology
and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850;gGeorgia State University, 24 Peachtree Center Avenue, Kell Hall, Atlanta, GA 30303;hMercer
University School of Medicine, W89 Basic Medical Sciences, 1550 College Street, Macon, GA 31207;iLaboratory of Human Molecular Genetics,
Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia; andjCenter for Genome Research,
Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education, P.O. Box 255, Persequor Park, 0020 Pretoria, South Africa
Contributed by Douglas C. Wallace, November 15, 2002
Human mtDNA shows striking regional variation, traditionally
attributed to genetic drift. However, it is not easy to account for
the fact that only two mtDNA lineages (M and N) left Africa to
colonize Eurasia and that lineages A, C, D, and G show a 5-fold
enrichment from central Asia to Siberia. As an alternative to drift,
natural selection might have enriched for certain mtDNA lineages
as people migrated north into colder climates. To test this hypoth-
esis we analyzed 104 complete mtDNA sequences from all global
regions and lineages. African mtDNA variation did not significantly
Siberian plus Native American variations did. Analysis of amino
acid substitution mutations (nonsynonymous, Ka) versus neutral
mutations (synonymous, Ks) (ka?ks) for all 13 mtDNA protein-
coding genes revealed that the ATP6 gene had the highest amino
acid sequence variation of any human mtDNA gene, even though
ATP6 is one of the more conserved mtDNA proteins. Comparison of
and arctic zones revealed that ATP6 was highly variable in the
mtDNAs from the arctic zone, cytochrome b was particularly
variable in the temperate zone, and cytochrome oxidase I was
notably more variable in the tropics. Moreover, multiple amino
acid changes found in ATP6, cytochrome b, and cytochrome oxi-
dase I appeared to be functionally significant. From these analyses
we conclude that selection may have played a role in shaping
human regional mtDNA variation and that one of the selective
influences was climate.
posed of groups of related haplotypes or haplogroups) are
continent-specific, with virtually no mixing of mtDNA haplo-
groups from the different geographic regions (1). In Africa, the
three most ancient mtDNA haplogroups (L0, L1, and L2), which
make up macrohaplogroup L, are specific for sub-Saharan
Africa. African macrohaplogroup L radiated to form the Africa-
specific haplogroup L3 as well as the Eurasian macrohaplo-
groups M and N. M and N arose in northeastern Africa and
individuals bearing M and N mtDNAs subsequently left Africa
to colonize Europe and Asia (1, 2).
Among Europeans, haplogroups H, I, J, N1b, T, U, V, W, and
X make up ?98% of the mtDNAs. These haplogroups were
derived primarily from macrohaplogroup N.
In Asia, macrohaplogroups N and M contributed equally to
mtDNA radiation, with a plethora of derivative mtDNA lineages
being generated within southeastern and central Asia (3). How-
ever, in Siberia, northward from the Altai Mountains and the
Amur River, only six mtDNA haplogroups (A, C, D, G, Z, and
Y) make up ?75% of the mtDNAs. In contrast, south of Tibet
and Korea, haplogroups A, C, D, and G represent only 14% of
the mtDNAs, and haplogroups Y and Z are rare. Thus there is
umerous previous surveys of aboriginal populations have
demonstrated that the branches of the mtDNA tree (com-
a 5-fold enrichment of A, C, D, and G mtDNAs between central
Asia and Siberia (4, 5).
In Native American populations, only five Old World mtDNA
variation (1). Haplogroups A, C, and D, which represent 58% of
Siberian mtDNAs, came to the Americas from northern Siberia
across the Bering land bridge. Haplogroup B may have arrived
later, because it is virtually absent in Siberia and rare in northern
North America, and its sequence diversity in Native Americans
is less than that of A, C, or D. In Asia, B is found primarily along
the Asian coast and out into the Pacific. Hence, it might have
come to the Americas via a coastal route, thus bypassing the
extreme north. Finally, Native American haplogroup X is con-
centrated in north central North America and is distantly related
to European X. Hence it probably also arrived in the Americas
via a northern route.
Thus, extensive global population studies have shown that
there are striking differences in the nature of the mtDNAs found
in different geographic regions. Previously, these marked dif-
ferences in mtDNA haplogroup distribution were attributed to
founder effects, specifically the colonizing of new geographic
regions by only a few immigrants that contributed a limited
number of mtDNAs. However, this model is difficult to reconcile
with the fact that northeastern Africa harbors all of the African-
radiation, yet only two mtDNA lineages (macrohaplogroups M
and N) left northeastern Africa to colonize all of Eurasia (1, 2)
and also that there is a striking discontinuity in the frequency of
haplogroups A, C, D, and G between central Asia and Siberia,
than Eurasia and Siberia being colonized by a limited number of
founders, it seems more likely that environmental factors en-
Natural selection has been hypothesized to explain anomalies
in the branch lengths of certain European (6) and African (7)
mtDNA lineages. The mtDNA encodes 13 polypeptides of
oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) including ND1, ND2,
ND3, ND4, ND4L, ND5, and ND6 of complex I (NADH
dehydrogenase); cytochrome b (cytb) of complex III (bc1com-
plex); COI, COII, and COIII of complex IV (cytochrome c
oxidase); and ATP6 and ATP8 of complex V (ATP synthase).
Hence, the genes of the mtDNA are central to energy produc-
Abbreviations: cytb, cytochrome b; nsyn, nonsynonymous; syn, synonymous; MRCA, most
recent common ancestor.
database (accession nos. AY195745–AY195792).
kTo whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: email@example.com.
www.pnas.org?cgi?doi?10.1073?pnas.0136972100 PNAS ?
January 7, 2003 ?
vol. 100 ?
no. 1 ?
to maintain body temperature.
We now hypothesize that natural selection may have influ-
enced the regional differences between mtDNA lineages. This
hypothesis is supported by our demonstration of striking differ-
ences in the ratio of nonsynonymous (nsyn)?synonymous (syn)
nucleotide changes in mtDNA genes between geographic re-
gions in different latitudes. We speculate that these differences
may reflect the ancient adaptation of our ancestors to increas-
ingly colder climates as Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa and
into Europe and northeastern Asia.
Materials and Methods
Sampling Strategy and Sequencing. Fifty-six mtDNA sequences
were available from the literature (8–12) encompassing individ-
uals sampled from African, European, and Asian populations
based on their language groups and geographic distribution. We
analyzed 48 additional individuals from African, Asian, Euro-
pean, Siberian, and Native American populations to complete a
global survey of mtDNA variation (13).
Sequence Quality Control and Haplogroup Assignment. The quality
of the sequences generated by automated DNA sequencing
system (Applied Biosystems 377) was ensured, and nucleotide
changes were analyzed by SEQUENCHER 4.0.5 software. Nucleo-
tide changes were noted in comparison with the revised Cam-
bridge Reference Sequence (9, 10). Assignment of sequences to
specific haplogroups was performed according to criteria as
Phylogenetic Analysis. A consensus neighbor-joining tree of the
104 complete human mtDNA sequences was constructed, and
bootstrap values (percentage of 500 total bootstrap replicates)
were calculated by using PHYLIP (37). DNA sequence divergence
version 10.0, GCG).
Coalescence Dates for Haplogroups. The times to the most recent
common ancestor (MRCA) were calculated by using only the
mtDNA coding region (nucleotide positions 577–16023), be-
cause of the high probability of reverse mutations in the control
region. The average sequence evolution rate was estimated by
using the HKY85 model (14). Standard errors were calculated
from the inverse hessian at the maximum of the likelihood, do
not include any uncertainty in the calibration point, and were
calculated by using the delta method. The coalescence times of
the various haplogroups may well be underestimated because of
the small sample size.
Ka?Ks Analysis. To detect the influence of selection, the ratio of
the number of substitutions causing amino acid replacements
(nsyn sites) per total possible nsyn sites (ka) was divided by the
number of silent substitutions (syn sites) per possible syn sites
ka?ks ratio for all 13 human mtDNA polypeptide genes from the
104 complete human mtDNA sequences (16) was calculated by
by 0 [ka?(ks ? constant)]. As an alternative to adding a constant,
we also calculated the ka?(ka ? ks) ratio. This also yielded some
zero values, which were dropped from subsequent calculations.
The significance (P values) for comparisons of the distributions
of ka?(ks ? constant) or ka?(ka ? ks) values for haplogroups of
tropical (L0-L3) to temperate (H, V, U, J, T, I, X, N1b, W) or
arctic (A, C, D, G, X, Y, Z) zones were calculated by using the
Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Both ka?(ks ? constant) and ka?(ka ?
ks) calculations gave similar results.
The data used in this paper are available at our MITOMAP
web site, www.mitomap.org.
Phylogenetic Analysis and Calculation of Coalescence Times. The
complete sequences of 104 human mtDNAs were analyzed for
the extent and nature of their variation. Analysis of the collective
a single tree, rooted in Africa, that was derived from the
sequential accumulation of mutations along radiating maternal
lineages (1, 8, 13, 17, 18) (Fig. 1). Assuming that the mtDNA
sequence evolution rate is constant, the mtDNA sequence
diversity suggests that the MRCA of the human mtDNA phy-
logeny occurred ?200,000 years before present (YBP), when
calibrated by using the human-chimpanzee divergence time of
6.5 million YBP (19) (Table 1).
Although all of the mtDNA macrolineages are represented in
northeastern Africa, only two macrolineages (M and N), sharing
the same approximate date of origin (65,000 years before
present), subsequently left Africa to colonize Europe and Asia.
All European, Asian, and Native American mtDNA lineages are
derived from these two founder M and N lineages (1, 2) (Fig. 1,
Table 1). Our phylogenetic analysis and MRCA calculations are
in agreement with previous studies based on D-loop sequences,
PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism variation, and
mtDNA sequences analysis of samples collected by using differ-
ent sampling strategies (1, 8, 13, 17, 18).
Nonrandom Continental mtDNA Variation. To determine whether
the observed regional transitions of mtDNA haplogroups rep-
resented a deviation from the standard neutral model, we
analyzed the distribution of mtDNA sequence variants between
geographic regions by using the Tajima’s D and the Fu and Li D*
tests (20, 21). We also calculated the continental frequency
distribution of pairwise mtDNA sequence differences to test for
rapid population expansion (22) (Fig. 4, which is published as
supporting information on the PNAS web site, www.pnas.org).
For all of the African mtDNA sequences belonging to the L
haplogroups (L0–L3) (n ? 32), the Tajima’s D and the Fu and
Li D* test results did not significantly deviate from the standard
neutral model. Similarly, these parameters did not significantly
deviate from neutrality for each of the haplogroup L lineages
alone: L0 (n ? 8), L1 (n ? 9), L2 (n ? 7), or L3 (n ? 7).
Moreover, the frequency distribution of pairwise sequence
and ragged distribution (Fig. 4). All of these results are consis-
tent with the African mtDNA population having been relatively
stable for a long time.
By contrast, the non-African macrohaplogroup M and N
mtDNAs (n ? 72) showed a highly significant deviation from
neutrality (Tajima’s D ? ?2.43, P ? 0.01; Fu and Li D* ? ?5.09,
P ? 0.02). This was also true for macrohaplogroup M mtDNAs
(Tajima’s D ? ?2.01, P ? 0.05) and Fu and Li D* ? ?3.35 (P ?
0.02) and macrohaplogroup N mtDNAs (Tajima’s D ? ?2.54
(P ? 0.001) and Fu and Li D* ? ?4.38 (P ? 0.02) when analyzed
separately as well. Furthermore, analysis of the pairwise se-
quence differences of the macrohaplogroup M and N mtDNAs
gave a bell-shaped frequency distribution. These results are
consistent with population expansions out of Africa having
distorted the frequency distribution of mtDNA variation (6, 23).
To further define the regional distribution of these demo-
graphic influences, we divided Eurasian samples into European
and Asian plus Native American mtDNAs (4, 24). Analysis of all
European mtDNAs (n ? 31) also revealed significant deviations
from the standard neutral model (Tajima’s D ? ?2.19, P ? 0.01;
Fu and Li D* ? ?3.31, P ? 0.02) and a bimodal distribution of
pairwise comparisons (Fig. 4).
Similarly, analysis of the aggregated Asian and Native Amer-
ican mtDNAs (n ? 41) also revealed significant deviations from
the standard neutral model (Tajima’s D ? ?2.28, P ? 0.01; Fu
www.pnas.org?cgi?doi?10.1073?pnas.0136972100 Mishmar et al.
and Li D* ? ?4.31, P ? 0.02) as well as a broad, bell-shaped
distribution of pairwise differences consistent with rapid popu-
lation expansion (Fig. 4). When the Siberian and Native Amer-
ican haplogroup A, B, C, D, G, Z, Y, and X mtDNAs (n ? 32)
were analyzed separately, they also showed significant deviation
from neutrality (Tajima’s D ? ?1.94, P ? 0.05; Fu and Li D* ?
?3.41, P ? 0.02). When these same Siberian and Native Amer-
ican haplogroup A, C, D, G, Z, Y and X mtDNAs were analyzed
without B (n ? 26), they also showed significant deviation from
neutrality for the Fu and Li D* test (D* ? ?2.96, P ? 0.05),
although not for the Tajima’s D test (D ? ?1.77, not significant).
The distribution of the pairwise sequence differences for these
mtDNAs was also unimodal. Thus, population expansions have
distorted mtDNA variation as people moved into Siberia and
Beringia and on into North Americas.
Variable Replacement Mutation Rates in Human mtDNA Genes. If
natural selection were an important factor in shaping regional
human mtDNA sequence variation, then selection would prin-
cipally act through amino acid variants in the mtDNA OXPHOS
polypeptides. The effect of selection on a particular mtDNA
protein gene can be assessed by determining the frequency of
amino acid changes (nsyn, ka) versus silent base changes (syn,
ks). An increase in the ratio of ka?ks would then reflect an
increased amino acid substitution rate in that protein.
To determine the overall amino acid diversities of the 13
mtDNA proteins among humans, we calculated the ka?ks ratios
by us by using Applied Biosystems 377. Colors correspond to the continental
origin of the individuals chosen for this analysis: yellow, Africans; purple,
European; pink, Asians and Native Americans. Specific mutations in patient
as were gaps and deletions, with the exception of the 9-bp deletion (nucle-
otide positions 8272–8280). Haplogroup names are designated with capital
letters. Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes mtDNA sequences were used as
outgroups. Haplogroups L0 and L1 replace the previously defined haplo-
groups L1a and L1b, respectively (35).
sequences. Numbers correspond to bootstrap values (percentage of 500 total
bootstrap replicates). Because this is a consensus tree, based on bootstrapping,
are drawn in the chimp lineage to denote the much greater genetic distance
between human and chimp than among the various human mtDNAs. Maxi-
mum likelihood and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean
methods yielded the same branching orders with respect to the geographi-
starting from the top of that figure; e21u, GenBank accession no. X93334;
a1l1a, GenBank accession no. D38112; cam revise, GenBank accession no.
Consensus neighbor-joining tree of 104 human mtDNA complete
Table 1. Coalescence dates for haplogroups
Time to MRCA ? SE,
MRCA ? SE,
1 ? 104
818.05 ? 0.75
24.88 ? 0.90
17.92 ? 1.87
17.81 ? 1.77
11.57 ? 1.30
8.09 ? 0.53
4.06 ? 0.92
7.66 ? 0.51
3.61 ? 0.73
2.40 ? 0.40
1.71 ? 0.60
6.29 ? 0.74
4.33 ? 0.87
1.40 ? 0.55
6.51 ? 0.66
8.15 ? 0.74
5.91 ? 0.87
3.56 ? 0.65
4.19 ? 0.67
198 ? 19
142 ? 17
142 ? 17
91.9 ? 11.8
64.3 ? 5.8
32.3 ? 7.6
60.9 ? 5.5
28.7 ? 6.1
19.1 ? 3.4
13.6 ? 4.8
50.0 ? 6.7
34.4 ? 7.2
11.1 ? 4.4
51.7 ? 6.2
64.8 ? 7.1
47.0 ? 7.6
28.3 ? 5.5
33.3 ? 5.7
*Based on these data we estimated the average sequence evolution rate as
1.26 ? 0.08 ? 10?8base substitutions per nucleotide per year, using the
HKY85 model (14).
Mishmar et al.PNAS ?
January 7, 2003 ?
vol. 100 ?
no. 1 ?
for all pairwise combinations of the 104 human mtDNA se-
quences by using the method of Nei and Gojobori (16). The
ka?ks ratios were calculated in two ways: ka?(ks ? constant) and
result. ATP6, which is generally found to be one of the more
highly conserved genes in comparisons between distant species
(25–27), had the highest amino acid sequence variation of any
human mtDNA gene (Fig. 2).
Moreover, ATP8, the companion of ATP6 in the ATP syn-
thase, is one of the least conserved mtDNA protein coding genes
in comparisons between distant species (25, 26). Yet it proved to
be one of the most highly conserved genes in the human
mtDNAs (Fig. 2).
To determine whether the increased ATP6 variation in the
human mtDNA comparisons (Fig. 2) also correlates with re-
gional transitions, we compared the ka?ks ratios of the 13
mtDNA genes for mtDNA haplogroup lineages from three
different geographic regions: the African-specific mtDNA hap-
logroups L0–L3 representing the tropical and subtropical zones;
the European-specific mtDNA haplogroups H, V, U, J, T, I, X,
N1b, and W representing the temperate zone; and the Siberian
and Native American haplogroups A, C, D, G, Z, Y, and X
representing the subarctic and arctic zones. Comparison of the
distribution of the ka?ks ratios (16) for each climatic zone
revealed dramatic differences in the amino acid sequences of
particular mtDNA genes (Fig. 3).
The amino acid sequence variation of mtDNA proteins from
the arctic and subarctic zone Siberians and Native Americans
revealed that ATP6 was extremely highly variable. Amino acid
sequence variation was also increased in COIII and ND6 among
arctic mtDNA lineages.
Analysis of amino acid sequence variation of the temperate-
zone Europeans revealed strikingly high amino acid sequence
variation in the cytb protein (Fig. 3). Lastly, analysis of the
protein sequence variation of the tropical- and subtropical-zone
Africans revealed heightened amino acid sequence variation for
COI and ND5. Increased amino acid variation was also observed
in the tropics for ATP6, cytb, COII, ND1, and ND2 (Fig. 3).
Thus, there is a dramatic correlation between increased amino
acid substitutions in particular genes of the mtDNA and climatic
Climatically Delimited Amino Acid Substitutions in ATP6, Cytb, and
COI. To investigate the possible functional significance of the
ATP6 amino acid variation in the arctic and subarctic zones, in
cytb for the temperate zone, and in COI for the tropical and
subtropical zones we examined the evolutionary conservation of
the variable amino acids. Amino acid conservation was deter-
mined by comparing the mtDNA proteins of 39 animal species
(12 primates, 22 other mammals, four nonmammalian verte-
brates, and Drosophila). Many of the substitutions did alter
evolutionarily conserved amino acids.
For the ATP6 gene, striking amino acid substitutions were
found throughout Eurasia and the Americas. Among the hap-
logroups of macrohaplogroup M, the related Siberian-Native
American haplogroups C and Z share an alanine to threonine
substitution at codon 20 (A20T). A nonpolar amino acid is found
in this position in all animal species except for Macaca, Papio
(baboon), Balaenoptera (whale), and Drosophila.
The ATP6 genes of macrohaplogroup N are separated from
those of the rest of the world by a T59A substitution. The polar
T at position 59 is conserved in all great apes and some Old
World monkeys. Similarly, the macrohaplogroup N, non-R, N1b
lineage harbors two distinctive amino acid substitutions: M104V
and T146A. The M at position 104 is conserved in all mammals,
whereas the T at position 146 is conserved throughout all animal
mtDNAs. Moreover, the T146A substitution is within the same
transmembrane ?-helix as the pathogenic mutation L156R that
alters the coupling efficiency of the ATP synthase and causes the
neurogenic weakness, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa and Leigh
Also in macrohaplogroup N, the ATP6 gene of the Siberian-
Native American haplogroup A mtDNAs harbors a H90Y amino
acid substitution. The H in this position is conserved in all
placental mammals except Pongo (orangutan), Cebus (capuchin
monkey), and Loxodonta (elephant) and occurs within a highly
Analysis of the cytb gene variants in Europeans revealed that
haplogroup HV is associated with an I7T variant, with a non-
polar amino acid being found in this position in chimpanzee,
bonobo, and most humans, whereas a polar amino acid is found
in this human mtDNA lineage and all other animals. Similarly,
a L236I variant is found in the cytb genes of haplogroup JT, yet
an L is found in this position in all other simians.
Examination of COI in Africans revealed Y496H substitution
present in all haplogroup L1 mtDNAs, whereas an uncharged
amino acid is found in this position in all primates. Likewise, an
A415T substitution is present in virtually all African L0 and L1
in chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, bonobo, gibbon, baboon, and
tarsius, although not in Macaca and Cebus.
Because each of the mtDNA sequences used for the nonhu-
man mtDNA comparisons is derived from only one or two
individuals it is possible that the deviant cases in these species
may also be caused by adaptive mtDNA mutations. Hence, a
number of the ATP6, cytb, and COI amino acid polymorphisms
have the characteristics expected for evolutionarily adaptive
Our data suggest that regional variation in mtDNA sequences is
deviates from neutrality in European, Central Asian, and Sibe-
rian plus Native American mtDNA lineages but not African
lineages. The ATP6 gene is the most variable gene among human
mtDNAs. ATP6, cytb, and COI are specifically variable in the
human mtDNA sequences (16). For each gene, the bottom and top of the line
indicates the minimum and maximum values, respectively. The bottom, inter-
mediate, and top horizontal lines in the boxes represent the 25th, 50th
We have also calculated ka?(ks ? ka), dropping those values that were 0?0.
This calculation gave essentially the same results (Fig. 5, which is published as
supporting information on the PNAS web site).
Distribution of the relative selective constraints [ka?(ks ? constant)]
www.pnas.org?cgi?doi?10.1073?pnas.0136972100Mishmar et al.
arctic, temperate, and tropical zones, respectively; and a number
of the amino acid substitutions of these genes alter evolutionarily
conserved amino acids.
mtDNA Mutations May Permit Adaptation to Changes in Diet and
Climate. mtDNA variation would be the ideal method to foster
adaptation to different environments. Mitochondrial oxidative
phosphorylation (OXPHOS) uses dietary calories to generate
ATP to do work and heat to maintain body temperature. The
balance between these two functions is determined by the
efficiency of coupling the mitochondrial inner membrane elec-
trochemical gradient to synthesize ATP through the ATP syn-
thase. Variants that reduce the coupling efficiency would reduce
ATP production, but increase heat production. Such variants
would be advantageous in the subarctic and arctic where survival
of cold stress would be a major factor in survival. Partial
uncoupling of the mitochondria would increase the basal met-
abolic rate of the individual and hence would require a higher
caloric intake, such as that provided by a high-fat diet. Thus,
mtDNA ATP6 variants that reduce coupling might partially
account for the increased basal metabolic rate that has been
observed in indigenous, circumpolar, human populations (29).
The high mutation rate of mtDNA and the central role of
mitochondrial proteins in cellular energetics make the mtDNA
an ideal system for permitting rapid human and animal adap-
tation to new climate and dietary conditions. The uniparental
(maternal) inheritance of the mtDNA favors the rapid segrega-
tion, expression, and adaptive selection of new advantageous
mtDNA alleles. The lack of recombination would mean that
selection of beneficial mutants would increase the frequency of
the entire mtDNA haplotype through hitchhiking. Hence, cli-
matic selection would lead to the regional-specific haplogroups
that are observed.
Evidence has already accumulated that different human
tropical and subtropical (African), temperate (European), and arctic and subarctic (Siberian and Native American). Calculation of ka?(ks ? constant) and
distribution of values are as presented in Fig. 2. Numbers above plots represent P values (Wilcoxon rank-sum test) for the comparison of the distribution of
ka?(ks ? constant) values for tropical (L0–L3) to temperate (H, V, U, J, T, I, X, N1b, and W) or arctic (A, C, D, G, X, Y, and Z) zones. Very similar distributions and
P values were obtained for the arctic whether or not haplogroup B mtDNAs were included in the calculation. Similar results have been obtained by calculating
ka?(ks ? ka) where significant differences (P ? 0.01) were found between tropical (Africans) and arctic (Siberians and Native Americans) for the ND1, ND3,
ND5, ND6, COI, COIII, ATP6, and ATP8 genes and between tropical and temperate (Europeans) for the ND1, ND2, ND5, ND6, cytb, COI, COII, and ATP8 genes
(Table 2, which is published as supporting information on the PNAS web site). To control for the possibility that the observed differences in the distribution of
ka?(ks ? constant) ratios were simply an artifact of pairwise calculations, we also compared the raw number of nsyn and syn mutations for each lineage. Using
ATP6 as an example, the nsyn?syn ratio for the tropics was 3?15 (0.20), temperate 5?6 (0.83), and arctic 7?5 (1.4). By two-tailed Fisher’s exact test, the tropical
on ka?(ks ? constant), we used PAML (36) to chart the locations of nsyn and syn variants for ATP6 in the arctic A–D and X and the tropical L0–L3 haplogroups.
This process revealed that nsyn and syn mutations were relatively uniformly distributed across the A–D and X lineages, whereas the few African ATP6 variants
were located near the ends of the L0 and L3 branches.
Distribution of the relative selective constrains [ka?(ks ? constant)] calculated for the human mtDNA lineages associated with different climatic zones:
Mishmar et al. PNAS ?
January 7, 2003 ?
vol. 100 ?
no. 1 ?
mtDNA lineages are functionally different. Haplogroup T is Download full-text
associated with reduced sperm motility in European males (30),
and the tRNAGlnnucleotide position 4336 variant in haplogroup
H is associated with late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (31). More-
over, Europeans harboring the mild ND6 nucleotide position
14484 and ND4L nucleotide position 10663 Leber’s hereditary
optic neuropathy missense mutations are more prone to blind-
ness if they also harbor the mtDNA haplogroup J (32, 33), and
haplogroup J is associated with increased European longevity
(34). Because haplogroup J mtDNAs harbor two missense
mutations in complex I genes (Y304H in ND1 and A458T in
ND5), in addition to the above-mentioned L236T variant in the
cytb gene, these polymorphisms all could affect the efficiency of
OXPHOS ATP production and thus exacerbate the energy
defects of mildly deleterious new mutations.
Given that mtDNA lineages are functionally different, it
follows that the same variants that are advantageous in one
climatic and dietary environment might be maladaptive when
these individuals are placed in a different environment. Hence,
ancient regionally beneficial mtDNA variants could be contrib-
uting to modern bioenergetic disorders such as obesity, diabetes,
hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative
diseases as people move to new regions and adopt new lifestyles.
If selection has played an important role in the radiation of
human mtDNA lineages, then the rate of mtDNA molecular
clock may not have been constant throughout human history. If
this is the case, then conjectures about the timing of human
migrations may need to be reassessed.
We thank Drs. Jeffrey T. Lell and Debra O. Prosser for their multiple
intellectual and technical contributions to this investigation. This work
was supported by National Institutes of Health Grants AG13154,
HL64017, NS21328, and NS37167; an Ellison Foundation Senior Scien-
tist Grant (to D.C.W.); Fogerty National Institutes of Health Grants
TW01366 (to A.O. and D.C.W.) and TW01175 (to R.I.S. and M.D.B.);
a Wellcome Trust Research Career Development fellowship (to V.M.);
and a Bikura Fellowship from the Israel Science Foundation (to D.M.).
1. Wallace, D. C., Brown, M. D. & Lott, M. T. (1999) Gene 238, 211–230.
2. Quintana-Murci, L., Semino, O., Bandelt, H. J., Passarino, G., McElreavey, K.
& Santachiara-Benerecetti, A. S. (1999) Nat. Genet. 23, 437–441.
3. Schurr, T. G. & Wallace, D. C. (2002) Hum. Biol. 74, 431–452.
4. Torroni, A., Miller, J. A., Moore, L. G., Zamudio, S., Zhuang, J., Droma, R.
& Wallace, D. C. (1994) Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 93, 189–199.
5. Schurr, T. G., Sukernik, R. I., Starikovskaya, Y. B. & Wallace, D. C. (1999)
Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 108, 1–39.
6. Excoffier, L. (1990) J. Mol. Evol. 30, 125–139.
7. Torroni, A., Rengo, C., Guida, V., Cruciani, F., Sellitto, D., Coppa, A.,
Calderon, F. L., Simionati, B., Valle, G., Richards, M., et al. (2001) Am. J. Hum.
Genet. 69, 1348–1356.
8. Ingman, M., Kaessmann, H., Paabo, S. & Gyllensten, U. (2000) Nature 408,
9. Anderson, S., Bankier, A. T., Barrell, B. G., de Bruijn, M. H., Coulson, A. R.,
Drouin, J., Eperon, I. C., Nierlich, D. P., Roe, B. A., Sanger, F., et al. (1981)
Nature 290, 457–465.
10. Andrews, R. M., Kubacka, I., Chinnery, P. F., Lightowlers, R. N., Turnbull,
D. M. & Howell, N. (1999) Nat. Genet. 23, 147.
11. Horai, S., Hayasaka, K., Kondo, R., Tsugane, K. & Takahata, N. (1995) Proc.
Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92, 532–536.
12. Arnason, U., Xu, X. & Gullberg, A. (1996) J. Mol. Evol. 42, 145–152.
13. Wallace, D. C., Brown, M. D., Schurr, T. G., Chen, E., Chen, Y.-S., Starik-
ovskaya, Y. B. & Sukernik, R. I. (2000) in The Origin of Humankind, eds. Aloisi,
M., Battaglia, B., Carafoli, E. & Danieli, G. A. (IOS Press, Venice), pp. 9–11.
14. Hasegawa, M., Kishino, H. & Yano, T. (1985) J. Mol. Evol. 22, 160–174.
15. Rozas, J. & Rozas, R. (1999) Bioinformatics 15, 174–175.
16. Nei, M. & Gojobori, T. (1986) Mol. Biol. Evol. 3, 418–426.
17. Cann, R. L., Stoneking, M. & Wilson, A. C. (1987) Nature 325, 31–36.
18. Johnson, M. J., Wallace, D. C., Ferris, S. D., Rattazzi, M. C. & Cavalli-Sforza,
L. L. (1983) J. Mol. Evol. 19, 255–271.
19. Goodman, M., Porter, C. A., Czelusniak, J., Page, S. L., Schneider, H.,
Shoshani, J., Gunnell, G. & Groves, C. P. (1998) Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 9,
20. Tajima, F. (1989) Genetics 123, 585–595.
21. Fu, Y. X. & Li, W. H. (1993) Genetics 133, 693–709.
22. Rogers, A. R. & Harpending, H. (1992) Mol. Biol. Evol. 9, 552–569.
23. Merriwether, D. A., Clark, A. G., Ballinger, S. W., Schurr, T. G., Soodyall, H.,
Jenkins, T., Sherry, S. T. & Wallace, D. C. (1991) J. Mol. Evol. 33, 543–555.
24. Torroni, A., Bandelt, H. J., D’Urbano, L., Lahermo, P., Moral, P., Sellitto, D.,
Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62, 1137–1152.
25. Wallace, D. C., Ye, J. H., Neckelmann, S. N., Singh, G., Webster, K. A. &
Greenberg, B. D. (1987) Curr. Genet. 12, 81–90.
26. Neckelmann, N., Li, K., Wade, R. P., Shuster, R. & Wallace, D. C. (1987) Proc.
Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84, 7580–7584.
27. Saccone, C., Gissi, C., Lanave, C., Larizza, A., Pesole, G. & Reyes, A. (2000)
Gene 261, 153–159.
28. Trounce, I., Neill, S. & Wallace, D. C. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91,
29. Leonard, W. R., Sorensen, M. V., Galloway, V. A., Spencer, G. J., Mosher,
M. J., Osipova, L. & Spitsyn, V. A. (2002) Am. J. Hum. Biol. 14, 609–620.
30. Ruiz-Pesini, E., Lapena, A. C., Diez-Sanchez, C., Perez-Martos, A., Montoya,
J., Alvarez, E., Diaz, M., Urries, A., Montoro, L., Lopez-Perez, M. J. &
Enriquez, J. A. (2000) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 67, 682–696.
31. Shoffner, J. M., Brown, M. D., Torroni, A., Lott, M. T., Cabell, M. R., Mirra,
S. S., Beal, M. F., Yang, C., Gearing, M., Salvo, R., et al. (1993) Genomics 17,
32. Brown, M. D., Sun, F. & Wallace, D. C. (1997) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 60, 381–387.
33. Brown, M. D., Zhadanov, S., Allen, J. C., Hosseini, S., Newman, N. J.,
Hum. Genet. 109, 33–39.
34. Rose, G., Passarino, G., Carrieri, G., Altomare, K., Greco, V., Bertolini, S.,
Bonafe, M., Franceschi, C. & De Benedictis, G. (2001) Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 9,
35. Chen, Y. S., Olckers, A., Schurr, T. G., Kogelnik, A. M., Huoponen, K. &
Wallace, D. C. (2000) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 66, 1362–1383.
36. Yang, Z. (1997) Comput. Appl. Biosci. 13, 555–556.
37. Felsenstein, J. (1993) Phylogeny Inference Package 3.53c (University of Wash-
www.pnas.org?cgi?doi?10.1073?pnas.0136972100 Mishmar et al.