Inhibitory effect of corynoline isolated from the aerial parts of Corydalis incisa on the acetylcholinesterase.
ABSTRACT In the course of screening Korean natural products for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, it was found that a methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Corydalis incisa (Papaveraceae) showed significant inhibitory effects on AChE. Corynoline isolated from this plant inhibited AChE activity in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 value of corynoline was 30.6 microM. The AChE inhibitory activity of corynoline was reversible and noncompetitive.
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ABSTRACT: Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Amaryllidaceae extracts. The TLC plate was developed and then stained using Ellman's reagent, 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), to detect acetylcholinesterase activity. The advantages of this TLC assay method were that we could dereplicate the known inhibitor galanthamine, widely occurring in Amaryllidaceae, at an early stage of the isolation procedure. Moreover, there is no disturbance from sample dissolving solvents as in the microplate assay, and it is a very simple method. The detection limits were 10-200 ng for several known acetylcholinesterase inhibitors tested, and it is thus more sensitive than UV or Dragendorff's reagent detection. Also the minimal detectable amount for an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor tested was much less than that needed for the microplate assay. We screened 15 Amaryllidaceae extracts using this TLC method, and chose candidates for acetylcholinesterase inhibitor isolation.Journal of Chromatography 05/2001; 915(1-2):217-23. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We screened 139 herbal spices in search of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor from natural resources. AChE inhibitors, which enhance cholinergic transmission by reducing the enzymatic degradation of acetylcholine, are the only source of compound currently approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Among these herbs, edible plants and spices, the ethanol extract from Origanum majorana L. showed the highest inhibitory effect on AChE in vitro. By sequential fractionation of Origanum majorana L. the active component was finally identified as ursolic acid (3 beta-Hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid). The ursolic acid of Origanum majorana L. inhibited AChE activity in a dose-dependent and competitive/non-competitive type. The Ki value (representing the affinity of the enzyme and inhibitor) of Origanum majorana L. ursolic acid was 6 pM, and that of tacrine was 0.4 nM. The concentration required for 50% enzyme inhibition of the active component (IC50 value) was 7.5 nM, and that of tacrine was 1 nM. This study demonstrated that the ursolic acid of Origanum majorana L. appeared to be a potent AChE inhibitor in Alzheimer's Disease.Molecules and Cells 05/2001; 11(2):137-43. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extracellular pathways circumventing the mammalian blood-brain fluid barriers (e.g., blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers) have been investigated in the rat by immunohistochemical localization of the endogenous serum proteins albumin, IgG, complement C-9, and IgM and by the exogenous tracer protein horseradish peroxidase (HRP). A demonstrable extracellular pathway into the central nervous system (CNS) is evident at the level of the subarachnoid space/pial surface. Immunoreaction products for the serum proteins and reaction product of intravenously administered HRP are identified over the entire pial surface, in the Virchow-Robin spaces and subpial cortical grey matter, and within phagocytes occupying the subarachnoid space/pial surface and perivascular clefts throughout the CNS. From specific circumventricular organs (e.g., median eminence, area postrema, subfornical organ), well known to lie outside the blood-brain barrier (BBB), each of the blood-borne proteins readily enters adjacent white and grey matter and the ventricular system for subsequent rostrocaudal labeling of the ependymal cell lining. Similar immunohistechemical and blood-borne HRP results are obtained in the CNS of the neonatal rat. Peroxidase delivered into the aorta of postmortem adult rats confirms the presence of a BBB in brain sites containing blood vessels impermeable to blood-borne HRP and the absence of a BBB in sites revealed as leaky to blood-borne HRP in the live rat. The results suggest blood-borne macromolecules, including those of the immune and complement systems, have potential widespread, extracellular distribution within the CNS and cerebrospinal fluid from sites deficient in a BBB (e.g., subarachnoid space/pial surface, circumventricular organs). These observations may have important clinical implications regarding experimental and pathologic autoimmune dysfunction within the CNS and impact on the interpretation of potential transcytosis of blood-borne peptides and proteins through the cerebral endothelium in vivo. A summary diagram of suspected extracellular and intracellular pathways circumventing the blood-brain fluid barriers is provided.Experimental Neurology 05/1993; · 4.65 Impact Factor