Antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Cuba (1995-1999): Implications for treatment of gonorrhea

Microbiology Branch, Tropical Medicine Institute Pedro Kourí, Havana, Cuba.
Sex Transm Dis (Impact Factor: 2.84). 02/2003; 30(1):10-4. DOI: 10.1097/00007435-200301000-00003
Source: PubMed


Antibiotic-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, especially those resistant to penicillin and tetracycline, have spread with remarkable rapidity in many Caribbean countries.
The goal of the study was to survey the antibiotic susceptibilities of N gonorrhoeae strains isolated from 1995 to 1999 in Cuba and to discuss the impact of antimicrobial resistance on the management of gonorrhea in the country.
Susceptibility of the strains to penicillin, tetracycline, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, spectinomycin, and azithromycin were determined by an agar dilution method.
Penicillin and tetracycline resistance was noted in 60.8% and 54.2%, respectively, of the N gonorrhoeae strains tested. A total of 63.35 (76/120) of the N gonorrhoeae strains exhibited plasmid-mediated resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, or both. Strains with chromosomally mediated resistance to these antibiotics accounted for 10% (12/120) of the strains. The strains were susceptible to ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, spectinomycin, and ciprofloxacin. One strain's ciprofloxacin MIC was 0.125 mircog/ml. Of the 52 strains tested, 23.1% displayed intermediate resistance to azithromycin.
N gonorrhoeae strains exhibited a high frequency of resistance and multiresistance to penicillin and tetracycline. Therefore, these antibiotics should no longer be used to treat gonococcal infections in Cuba and should be substituted with effective drugs such as third-generation cephalosporins, spectinomycin, and fluoroquinolones. The detection of intermediate resistance to azithromycin and ciprofloxacin underlines the importance of periodic surveillance for susceptibility of N gonorrhoeae strains to antimicrobials agents used as primary therapy for gonorrhea.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modeling and simulations were applied to identify optimal dosage regimens for antibiotics. As the emergence of bacterial resistance is increasing and as only a few new antibiotics became available during the last decade, optimal use of established agents and preserving their effectiveness seems vital. Objectives: 1) To find the descriptor of body size and body composition which allows to achieve target concentrations and target effects in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) most precisely. 2) To identify the mode of administration with the highest probability of successful treatment for intravenous beta-lactams. 3) To develop formulas for optimal dose selection for patients of various body size. General methods: Drug analysis in plasma and urine was performed by HPLC or LC-MS/MS in a single laboratory, at the IBMP. Drug analysis was not done by the author of this thesis. We used non-compartmental analysis and parametric population PK analysis for all studies. We used non-parametric bootstrapping to assess the uncertainty of PK parameters for our meta-analysis of the PK in CF-patients and healthy volunteers. Plasma concentration time profiles for several thousand virtual subjects were simulated by MCS which account for average PK parameters, their between subject variability (BSV), and patient specific demographic data. Convincing literature data show that the duration of non-protein bound concentration above MIC (fT>MIC) best predicts the microbiological and clinical success of beta-lactams and the area under the non-protein bound concentration curve divided by the MIC (fAUC/MIC) best predicts success for quinolones. We used PKPD targets from literature that were based on the fT>MIC or fAUC/MIC, respectively. Achieving a PKPD target was used as a surrogate measure for successful treatment. In our MCS, we calculated the fT>MIC or fAUC/MIC for all simulated concentration profiles and compared it to the value of the PKPD target. The fraction of subjects who achieved the target at the respective MIC approximates the probability of target attainment (PTA). The PTA can be interpreted as probability of successful treatment under certain assumptions. Studies in CF-patients Methods: We had data from ten studies (seven beta-lactams and three quinolones) in CF-patients which all included a healthy volunteer control group. Clinical procedures were very similar for all ten studies. Both subject groups had study conditions as similar as possible. We had data on 90 CF-patients (average +/- SD, age: 21+/-3.6 yrs) and on 111 healthy volunteers (age: 25+/-3.5 yrs). We compared the average clearance and volume of distribution between CF-patients and healthy volunteers for various body size descriptors including total body weight (WT), fat-free mass (FFM), and predicted normal weight (PNWT). We considered linear and allometric scaling of PK parameters by body size and used a meta-analysis based on population PK parameters for the comparison of CF-patients and healthy volunteers. Target concentrations can be achieved more precisely, if a size descriptor reduces the random, unexplained BSV. Therefore, we studied the reduction of unexplained BSV for each size descriptor relative to linear scaling by WT, since doses for CF-patients are commonly selected as mg/kg WT. Results: Without accounting for body size, average total clearance was 15% lower (p=0.005) and volume of distribution at steady-state was 17% lower (p=0.001) in CF-patients compared to healthy volunteers. For linear scaling by WT, average total clearance in CF-patients divided by total clearance in healthy volunteers was 1.15 (p=0.013). This ratio was 1.06 (p=0.191) for volume of distribution. A ratio of 1.0 indicates that CF-patients and healthy volunteers of the same body size have identical average clearances or volumes of distribution. For allometric scaling by FFM or PNWT, the ratio of total clearance and volume of distribution between CF-patients and healthy volunteers was within 0.80 and 1.25 for almost all drugs and the average ratio was close to 1. Allometric scaling by FFM or PNWT reduced the unexplained BSV in renal clearance by 24 to 27% (median of 10 drugs) relative to linear scaling by WT. The unexplained BSV was reduced for seven or eight of the ten drugs by more than 15% and the remaining two or three drugs had essentially unchanged (+/-15%) unexplained BSVs in renal clearance. Conclusions: The PK in CF-patients was comparable to the PK in healthy volunteers after accounting for body size and body composition by allometric scaling with FFM or PNWT. Target concentrations and target effects in CF-patients can be achieved most precisely by dose selection based on an allometric size model with FFM or PNWT. Future studies are warranted to study the clinical superiority of allometric dosing by FFM or PNWT compared to dose selection as mg/kg WT in CF-patients. Zielsetzungen: 1) Den Deskriptor für Körpergröße und Körperzusammensetzung zu finden, mit dem Ziel-Konzentrationen und Ziel-Effekte in Mukoviszidose-Patienten (engl.: „cystic fibrosis“, CF-Patienten) am genauesten erzielt werden können. 2) Suche nach Dosierungsregimen mit der höchsten Wahrscheinlichkeit für erfolgreiche Therapie mit intravenösen Beta-Laktamen. Allgemeine Methoden: Die Analytik wurde mittels HPLC oder LC-MS/MS in einem einzigen Labor durchgeführt, im Labor des IBMP. Wir verwendeten nicht-kompartimentelle Analyse und parametrische Populations-PK-Analyse in allen Studien. Wir verwendeten nicht-parametrische Bootstrap-Techniken um die Unsicherheit in den PK-Parametern für unsere Meta-Analyse der PK in CF-Patienten und gesunden Probanden zu bestimmen. Die Plasma-Konzentrations-Zeit-Profile für mehrere tausend Probanden wurden mittels MCS simuliert. MCS berücksichtigt die mittleren PK-Parameter, deren Variabilität zwischen Probanden (engl.: „between subject variability“, BSV), und die patientenspezifischen demographischen Daten. Überzeugende Ergebnisse aus der Literatur zeigen, dass die Dauer der nicht-proteingebundenen Konzentration oberhalb der MHK (fT>MHK) am besten den mikrobiologischen und klinischen Erfolg von Beta-Laktamen vorhersagt und dass die Fläche unter der nicht-proteingebundenen Konzentration dividiert durch die MHK (fAUC/MHK) am besten den Erfolg für Chinolone anzeigt. Wir verwendeten PKPD Zielwerte aus der Literatur die auf der fT>MHK oder der fAUC/MHK basieren. Das Erreichen eines PKPD Zielwertes wurde als Surrogat für erfolgreiche Behandlung angesehen. Studien in CF-Patienten Methoden: Wir verwendeten Daten von zehn Studien (sieben Beta-Laktame und drei Chinolone) in CF-Patienten, die alle über eine Kontrollgruppe mit gesunden Probanden verfügten. Die klinische Durchführung dieser Studien war sehr gut vergleichbar. CF-Patienten und gesunde Probanden hatten so ähnliche Studienbedingungen wie möglich. Unser Datensatz beinhaltete 90 CF-Patienten (Mittelwert +/- SD, Alter: 21+/-3.6 Jahre) und 111 gesunde Probanden (Alter: 25+/-3.5 Jahre). Wir verglichen die mittlere Clearance und das mittlere Verteilungsvolumen zwischen CF-Patienten und gesunden Probanden nach Normierung auf verschiedene Deskriptoren für Körpergröße. Diese beinhalteten Gesamtkörpergewicht (WT), fettfreie Körpermasse (FFM) und das vorhergesagte Normalgewicht (engl.: „predicted normal weight“, PNWT). Wir verwendeten lineare und allometrische Skalierung der PK Parameter mit der Körpergröße und verglichen die Populations-PK-Parameter zwischen CF-Patienten und gesunden Probanden in einer Meta-Analyse. Zielkonzentrationen können präziser erreicht werden, wenn ein Deskriptor für die Körpergröße die zufällige, unerklärte BSV verringert. Daher untersuchten wir die Verringerung der unerklärten BSV für einige Körpergrößen-Deskriptoren. Lineares Skalieren mit WT nahmen wir als Vergleichswert für die BSV, da die Dosen für CF-Patienten meist als mg/kg WT berechnet werden. Ergebnisse: Ohne Beachtung der Körpergröße war die mittlere Gesamtkörperclearance um 15% niedriger (p=0.005) in CF-Patienten und das Verteilungsvolumen im Steady-State um 17% niedriger (p=0.001) in CF-Patienten verglichen mit gesunden Probanden. Bei linearer Skalierung mit WT, war die mittlere Gesamtkörperclearance in CF-Patienten dividiert durch die Gesamtkörperclearance in Gesunden 1.15 (p=0.013). Dieser Quotient betrug 1.06 (p=0.191) für das Verteilungsvolumen. Bei einem Quotienten von 1.0 hätten CF-Patienten und gesunde Probanden der gleichen Körpergröße identische mittlere Clearances bzw. Verteilungsvolumina. Für allometrisches Skalieren mit FFM oder PNWT lagen fast alle Quotienten für Gesamtkörperclearance und Verteilungsvolumen zwischen CF-Patienten und Gesunden zwischen 0.80 und 1.25 und die mittleren Quotienten waren nahe 1.0. Allometrisches Skalieren mit FFM oder PNWT reduzierte die unerklärte BSV in der renalen Clearance um 24 bis 27% (Median der 10 Substanzen) verglichen mit linearem Skalieren mit WT. Sieben oder acht der zehn Substanzen hatten eine Verringerung der unerklärten BSV in der renalen Clearance um mehr als 15% und die übrigen zwei bzw. drei Substanzen erreichten eine ähnliche (+/-15%) unerklärte BSV für renale Clearance. Schlussfolgerungen: Die PK in CF-Patienten war vergleichbar mit der PK in Gesunden, wenn man Körpergröße und Körperzusammensetzung durch allometrisches Skalieren mit FFM oder PNWT berücksichtigte. Zielkonzentrationen und Zieleffekte in CF-Patienten konnten durch allometrisches Skalieren mit FFM oder PNWT am genausten erreicht werden. Zukünftige Studien in CF-Patienten zur klinischen Überlegenheit von allometrischer Dosiswahl mit FFM oder PNWT verglichen mit Dosiswahl als mg/kg WT sollten durchgeführt werden.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: along of antimicrobial era Neisseria gonorrhoeae have been developing resistance to several agents. It is estimated the occurrence of more than 1,5 million new cases for year in Brazil and the emergence of the vigilance and dissemination of resistant strains must be periodically monitorated. Objective: evaluate the resistance, phenotypic and molecular characterization of gonococcus isolated in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro between February 2002 and June 2003, establishing basic information for further studies. Demographic profile of the patients with gonorrhea was determined. Method: samples of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated consecutively were tested for penicillin, tetracycline, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone and clo- ranfenicol using the E-test method to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). All the strains were tested for β-lactamase, plasmidial analysis, serotyping and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) to study the genetic variability. The demographic characteristics of the patients were obtained in medical file. Result: of the 115 tested samples, 10 (8.7%) were β-lactamase producing (PPNG), 88 (76.5%) had intermediary resistance to penicillin and 17 (14.8%) were sensitive. For tetracycline 39 (33.9%) were resistant, 37 (32.2%) had intermediary resistance and 39 (33,9%) were sensiti- ve. The resistance mediated by plasmid to tetracycline (TRNG, MIC ≥ 16 µg/mL) was detected in 20% of the isolate. To cloranfenicol, 4 (3.4%) were resistant, 14 (12.2%) had intermediary resistance and 97 (84.5%) were sensitive. Were found 23 (20%) isolates with reduced susceptibility to azithromycin (MIC 0.25 - 0.5 µg/mL) and 2 (1.7%) with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC = 0.5 µg/mL). All the samples were sensitive to ceftriaxone. Among PPNG, we found three distinct type of plasmids, the Asia (4.4 Mda), Africa (3.2 Mda) and Toronto (3.05 Mda) types. The predominant serogroup was I-B/W II/III in about 90 % of the samples. Conclusion: the resistance surveillance to antimicrobial is important to monitorate the emergence and spread of resistant strains helping in therapeutic choice. In the area of Rio de Janeiro, penicillin and tetracycline are not recommended for the treatment of gonorrhea and the use of azithromycin demands attention. The phenotypic and genotypic analyses of the studied samples will give comparative instruments for future epidemiological studies. Our patients with gonorrhea are white men, young (average 22 years old), singles, heterosexuals, with multiple partners, with low level of education and familiar income, and continually exposed to risks of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases.
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