Tolbutamide, flurbiprofen, and losartan as probes of CYP2C9 activity in humans.
ABSTRACT The metabolic activity of CYP2C9 in 16 subjects expressing four different genotypes (CYP2C9*1/*1, *1/*2, *1/*3, and *2/*2) was evaluated. Single oral doses of tolbutamide, flurbiprofen, and losartan were administered in a randomized, crossover design. Plasma and urine were collected over 24 hours. The urinary metabolic ratio and amount of metabolite(s) excreted were correlated with formation clearance. The formation clearance of tolbutamide to its CYP2C9-mediated metabolites demonstrated a stronger association with genotype compared to flurbiprofen and losartan, respectively (r2 = 0.64 vs. 0.53 vs. 0.42). A statistically significant correlation was observed between formation clearance of tolbutamide and the 0- to 12-hour urinary amount of 4'-hydroxytolbutamide and carboxytolbutamide (r = 0.84). Compared to tolbutamide, the correlations observed between the respective measures of flurbiprofen and losartan metabolism were not as strong. Tolbutamide is a better CYP2C9 probe than flurbiprofen and losartan, and the 0- to 12-hour amount of 4'-hydroxytolbutamide and carboxytolbutamide is the best urinary measure of its metabolism.
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ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a super family of phase I enzyme in the biotransformation of xenobiotics and medications. Most medications undergo deactivation by CYP, and then are eliminated through either bile or kidneys from the body. CYP isozymes play a crucial role in drug interactions that may result in enhanced toxicity, reduced efficacy or onset of adverse reactions. On the other hand, many agents affecting CYP expression and activity may alter metabolic rate of different medications co-administrated. Therefore, the molecular basis, regulation by inducers or inhibitors, and pharmacologic reaction of specific CYP isozymes are the key issues of biochemical mechanisms, pharmaceutical development and safe use of various medications. This book is to meet the needs from basic molecular biochemists, pharmacologists, pharmacists, medical students, clinical practitioners and scientists, as well as broad readers who wish to understand how an herbal extract, medication or natural supplement is metabolized or transformed in the liver or other sites for deactivation and elimination. Special focuses are paid to herbal extracts and medications in the treatment of neuro-psychiatric or cardiovascular disorders, diabetes and viral hepatitis. Detailed dissection of drug interactions in a particular field intends to provide rationales for useful guidance of safe drug use in daily practice. The contributing authors are basic scientists, pharmacists, pharmacologists and on-service physicians in cardiovascular, neuro-psychiatric, gastroenterologic and hepatologic fields from Europe (Germany, France, Portugal), Australia, the US and China. Thus, the book is the collection of master pieces by well-known experts from various regions of the world, and represents the current understanding of CYP enzyme reaction and a contemporary coverage of possible drug interactions in involved fields. The featured chapters are scientific elucidation of basic biochemistry, pharmacology and clinical investigations in the interest of drug metabolism, interaction and safe use guidance in the single focus of this microsomal enzyme with multi-facet metabolic function.First edited by Jian Wu, 09/2014; Nova Science Publishers, Inc.., ISBN: 978-1-61942-209-4
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ABSTRACT: Abstract 1. CYP2C9 is an important member of the cytochrome P450 enzyme superfamily, with 57 CYP2C9 allelic variants being previously reported. Among these variants, we recently identified 21 novel alleles (*36-*56) in the Han Chinese population. The aim of this study was to assess the catalytic activities of 36 CYP2C9 variants found in the Chinese population toward losartan in vitro. 2. Insect microsomes expressing the 36 CYP2C9 variants were incubated with 0.5-25 μM losartan for 30 min at 37 °C. Next, the products were extracted, and signal detection was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography. 3. Compared with wild-type CYP2C9.1, the intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) values of all variants except for CYP2C9.56 were significantly altered. One variant exhibited markedly increased values (>250%), whereas 33 variants exhibited significantly decreased values (from 20 to 96%) due to increased Km and/or decreased Vmax values. 4. These findings suggest that more attention should be paid to subjects carrying these infrequent CYP2C9 alleles when administering losartan in the clinic.Xenobiotica 07/2013; DOI:10.3109/00498254.2013.820007 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effects of genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes (e.g., CYP2C9(*)3) on drug clearance have been well characterized but much less is known about whether these polymorphisms alter susceptibility to drug-drug interactions. Previous in vitro work has demonstrated that genotype-dependent inhibition of CYP2C9 mediated flurbiprofen metabolism, suggesting the possibility of genotype-dependent inhibition interactions in vivo. In the current study, flurbiprofen was used as a probe substrate and fluconazole as a prototypical inhibitor to investigate whether genotype-dependent inhibition of CYP2C9 occurs in vivo. From 189 healthy volunteers who were genotyped for CYP2C9 polymorphisms, 11 control subjects (CYP2C9(*)1/(*)1), 9 heterozygous and 2 homozygous for the CYP2C9(*)3 allele participated in the pharmacokinetic drug interaction study. Subjects received a single 50-mg oral dose of flurbiprofen alone or after administration of either 200 or 400 mg of fluconazole for 7 days using an open, randomized, crossover design. Flurbiprofen and fluconazole plasma concentrations along with flurbiprofen and 4'-hydroxyflurbiprofen urinary excretion were monitored. Flurbiprofen apparent oral clearance differed significantly among the three genotype groups (p < 0.05) at baseline but not after pretreatment with 400 mg of fluconazole for 7 days. Changes in flurbiprofen apparent oral clearance after fluconazole coadministration were gene dose-dependent, with virtually no change occurring in (*)3/(*)3 subjects. Analysis of fractional clearances suggested that the fraction metabolized by CYP2C9, as influenced by genotype, determined the degree of drug interaction observed. In summary, the presence of CYP2C9(*)3 alleles (either one or two alleles) can alter the degree of drug interaction observed upon coadministration of inhibitors.Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 08/2008; 36(7):1242-8. DOI:10.1124/dmd.108.020396 · 3.33 Impact Factor