Tolbutamide, flurbiprofen, and losartan as probes of CYP2C9 activity in humans.
ABSTRACT The metabolic activity of CYP2C9 in 16 subjects expressing four different genotypes (CYP2C9*1/*1, *1/*2, *1/*3, and *2/*2) was evaluated. Single oral doses of tolbutamide, flurbiprofen, and losartan were administered in a randomized, crossover design. Plasma and urine were collected over 24 hours. The urinary metabolic ratio and amount of metabolite(s) excreted were correlated with formation clearance. The formation clearance of tolbutamide to its CYP2C9-mediated metabolites demonstrated a stronger association with genotype compared to flurbiprofen and losartan, respectively (r2 = 0.64 vs. 0.53 vs. 0.42). A statistically significant correlation was observed between formation clearance of tolbutamide and the 0- to 12-hour urinary amount of 4'-hydroxytolbutamide and carboxytolbutamide (r = 0.84). Compared to tolbutamide, the correlations observed between the respective measures of flurbiprofen and losartan metabolism were not as strong. Tolbutamide is a better CYP2C9 probe than flurbiprofen and losartan, and the 0- to 12-hour amount of 4'-hydroxytolbutamide and carboxytolbutamide is the best urinary measure of its metabolism.
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ABSTRACT: Bosentan (Tracleer®) is an endothelin receptor antagonist prescribed for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Its use is limited by drug-induced liver injury (DILI). To identify genetic markers of DILI, association analyses were performed on 56 Caucasian PAH patients receiving bosentan. Twelve functional polymorphisms in five genes (ABCB11, ABCC2, CYP2C9, SLCO1B1, SLCO1B3) implicated in bosentan pharmacokinetics were tested for associations with ALT, AST and DILI. After adjusting for BMI, CYP2C9*2 was the only polymorphism associated with ALT, AST and DILI (β = 2.16, P = 0.024; β = 1.92, P = 0.016; OR 95% CI = 2.29 - ∞, P = 0.003, respectively). Bosentan metabolism in vitro by CYP2C9*2 was significantly reduced compared to CYP2C9*1 and was comparable to CYP2C9*3. These results suggest that CYP2C9*2 is a potential genetic marker for prediction of bosentan-induced liver injury and warrants investigation for the optimization of bosentan treatment.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2013); accepted article preview online 17 July 2013 doi:10.1038/clpt.2013.143.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 07/2013; · 6.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Static and dynamic (PBPK) prediction models were applied to estimate the drug-drug interaction (DDI) risk of AZD2066. The predictions were compared to the results of an in vivo cocktail study. Various in vivo measures for tolbutamide as a probe agent for cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) were also compared. In vitro inhibition data for AZD2066 were obtained using human liver microsomes and CYP-specific probe substrates. DDI prediction was performed using PBPK modelling with the SimCYP simulator™ or static model. The cocktail study was an open label, baseline, controlled interaction study with 15 healthy volunteers receiving multiple doses of AD2066 for 12 days. A cocktail of single doses of 100 mg caffeine (CYP1A2 probe), 500 mg tolbutamide (CYP2C9 probe), 20 mg omeprazole (CYP2C19 probe) and 7.5 mg midazolam (CYP3A probe) was simultaneously applied at baseline and during the administration of AZD2066. Bupropion as a CYP2B6 probe (150 mg) and 100 mg metoprolol (CYP2D6 probe) were administered on separate days. The pharmacokinetic parameters for the probe drugs and their metabolites in plasma and urinary recovery were determined. In vitro AZD2066 inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6. The static model predicted in vivo interaction with predicted AUC ratio values of >1.1 for all CYP (except CYP3A4). The PBPK simulations predicted no risk for clinical relevant interactions. The cocktail study showed no interaction for the CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 enzymes, a possible weak inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 activities and a slight inhibition (29 %) of CYP2D6 activity. The tolbutamide phenotyping metrics indicated that there were significant correlations between CLform and AUCTOL, CL, Aemet and LnTOL24h. The MRAe in urine showed no correlation to CLform. CONCLUSIONS: DDI prediction using the static approach based on total concentration indicated that AZD20066 has a potential risk for inhibition. However, no DDI risk could be predicted when a more in vivo-like dynamic prediction method with the PBPK with SimCYP™ software based on early human PK data was used and more parameters (i.e. free fraction in plasma, no DDI risk) were taken into account. The clinical cocktail study showed no or low risks for clinical relevant DDI interactions. Our findings are in line with the hypothesis that the dynamic prediction method predicts DDI in vivo in humans better than the static model based on total plasma concentrations.European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 11/2013; · 2.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aims to improve the drug oral bioavailability by co-administration with flavonoid inhibitors of the CYP2C isozyme and to establish qualitative and quantitative (QSAR) structure-activity relationships (SAR) between flavonoids and CYP2C. A total of 40 naturally occurring flavonoids were screened in vitro for CYP2C inhibition. Enzyme activity was determined by measuring conversion of tolbutamide to 4-hydroxytolbutamide by rat liver microsomes. The percent inhibition and IC50 of each flavonoid were calculated and used to develop SAR and QSAR. The most effective flavonoid was orally co-administered in vivo with a cholesterol-reducing drug, fluvastatin, which is normally metabolized by CYP2C. The most potent CYP2C inhibitor identified in vitro was tamarixetin (IC50 = 1.4 μM). This flavonoid enhanced the oral bioavailability of fluvastatin in vivo, producing a >2-fold increase in the area under the concentration-time curve and in the peak plasma concentration. SAR analysis indicated that the presence of a 2,3-double bond in the C ring, hydroxylation at positions 5, 6, and 7, and glycosylation had important effects on flavonoid-CYP2C interactions. These findings should prove useful for predicting the inhibition of CYP2C activity by other untested flavonoid-like compounds. In the present study, tamarixetin significantly inhibited CYP2C activity in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the use of tamarixetin could improve the therapeutic efficacy of drugs with low bioavailability.The AAPS Journal 01/2014; · 4.39 Impact Factor