Prolactin-gene expression in human ovarian follicular cells
ABSTRACT To investigate prolactin gene expression in human ovarian follicular cells.
RNA was isolated from follicular cells obtained at the time of transvaginal oocyte retrieval from patients after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. The RNA was subjected to reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using prolactin-specific primers. The RT-PCR products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis, followed by Southern blot analysis using prolactin-specific probes.
Department of gynecology and obstetrics research laboratory.
Women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation followed by transvaginal oocyte retrieval.
Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation followed by transvaginal oocyte retrieval. Expression of prolactin mRNA by follicular cells.
The presence of prolactin-specific cDNA amplified by RT-PCR from RNA isolated from human follicular cells was confirmed by Southern blot analysis.
Human ovarian follicular cells are an extrapituitary site of prolactin gene expression.
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ABSTRACT: It is generally believed that in vertebrates, prolactin (PRL) is predominantly synthesized and released by pituitary lactotrophs and plays important roles in many physiological processes via activation of PRL receptor (PRLR), including water and electrolyte balance, reproduction, growth and development, metabolism, immuno-modulation, and behavior. However, there is increasing evidence showing that PRL and the newly identified 'prolactin-like protein (PRL-L)', a novel ligand of PRL receptor, are also expressed in a variety of extra-pituitary tissues, such as the brain, skin, ovary, and testes in non-mammalian vertebrates. In this brief review, we summarize the recent research progress on the structure, biological activities, and extra-pituitary expression of PRL and PRL-L in chickens (Gallus gallus) and zebrafish (Danio rerio) from our and other laboratories and briefly discuss their potential paracrine/autocrine roles in non-mammalian vertebrates, which may promote us to rethink the broad spectrum of PRL actions previously attributed to pituitary PRL only. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.General and Comparative Endocrinology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.02.001 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) are both endocrines that are synthesized and released from the pituitary gland into systemic circulation. Both are therefore hormones and both have numerous physiological roles mediated through a myriad of target sites and both have pathophysiological consequences when present in excess or deficiency. GH or PRL gene expression is not, however, confined to the anterior pituitary gland and it occurs widely in many of their central and peripheral sites of action. This may reflect "leaky gene" phenomena and the fact that all cells have the potential to express every gene that is present in their genome. However, the presence of GH or PRL receptors in these extrapituitary sites of GH and PRL production suggests that they are autocrine or paracrine sites of GH and PRL action. These local actions often occur prior to the ontogeny of pituitary somatotrophs and lactotrophs and they may complement or differ from the roles of their pituitary counterparts. Many of these local actions are also of physiological significance, since they are impaired by a blockade of local GH or PRL production or by an antagonism of local GH or PRL action. These local actions may also be of pathophysiological significance, since autocrine or paracrine actions of GH and PRL are thought to be causally involved in a number of disease states, particularly in cancer. Autocrine GH for instance, is thought to be more oncogenic than pituitary GH and selective targeting of the autocrine moiety may provide a therapeutic approach to prevent tumor progression. In summary, GH and PRL are not just endocrine hormones, as they have autocrine and/or paracrine roles in health and disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.General and Comparative Endocrinology 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.11.004 · 2.67 Impact Factor