Prolactin-gene expression in human ovarian follicular cells
ABSTRACT To investigate prolactin gene expression in human ovarian follicular cells.
RNA was isolated from follicular cells obtained at the time of transvaginal oocyte retrieval from patients after controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. The RNA was subjected to reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using prolactin-specific primers. The RT-PCR products were analyzed by gel electrophoresis, followed by Southern blot analysis using prolactin-specific probes.
Department of gynecology and obstetrics research laboratory.
Women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation followed by transvaginal oocyte retrieval.
Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation followed by transvaginal oocyte retrieval. Expression of prolactin mRNA by follicular cells.
The presence of prolactin-specific cDNA amplified by RT-PCR from RNA isolated from human follicular cells was confirmed by Southern blot analysis.
Human ovarian follicular cells are an extrapituitary site of prolactin gene expression.
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ABSTRACT: Growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) are both endocrines that are synthesized and released from the pituitary gland into systemic circulation. Both are therefore hormones and both have numerous physiological roles mediated through a myriad of target sites and both have pathophysiological consequences when present in excess or deficiency. GH or PRL gene expression is not, however, confined to the anterior pituitary gland and it occurs widely in many of their central and peripheral sites of action. This may reflect "leaky gene" phenomena and the fact that all cells have the potential to express every gene that is present in their genome. However, the presence of GH or PRL receptors in these extrapituitary sites of GH and PRL production suggests that they are autocrine or paracrine sites of GH and PRL action. These local actions often occur prior to the ontogeny of pituitary somatotrophs and lactotrophs and they may complement or differ from the roles of their pituitary counterparts. Many of these local actions are also of physiological significance, since they are impaired by a blockade of local GH or PRL production or by an antagonism of local GH or PRL action. These local actions may also be of pathophysiological significance, since autocrine or paracrine actions of GH and PRL are thought to be causally involved in a number of disease states, particularly in cancer. Autocrine GH for instance, is thought to be more oncogenic than pituitary GH and selective targeting of the autocrine moiety may provide a therapeutic approach to prevent tumor progression. In summary, GH and PRL are not just endocrine hormones, as they have autocrine and/or paracrine roles in health and disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.General and Comparative Endocrinology 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ygcen.2014.11.004 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of prolactin in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis and corpus luteal function and in particular its relationship to atresia in these structures is as yet unclear. We established a model of apoptosis in which to examine the actions of prolactin. Granulosa cells collected from IVF-flush were cultured at 0.1-0.3 x 10(6) cells/well in growth media for 48 h, placed into serum-free media for 24 h prior to dosing for 24 h. Dose responses to C2-ceramide and prolactin were performed. Cells were then treated with an apoptotic dose of C2-ceramide alone, prolactin (100 ng/ml) alone or a combination of the two. Cell death was assessed by Trypan Blue cell counting and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; Thiazolyl Blue] assay and apoptosis confirmed by morphological assessment and flow cytometry. C2-ceramide (0-40 micro mol/l) induced a dose-dependent increase in cell death (63.8% increase at 40 micro mol/l) and, morphologically, cells exhibited classical features of apoptosis. Prolactin alone had no effect on metabolic activity or total cell number. On co- incubation, prolactin alone had no effect on cell death, whereas C2-ceramide induced an approximately 62.6% increase in apoptosis, which was inhibited in the presence of prolactin. Prolactin may contribute significantly to early corpus luteum formation and survival by acting as a potent antiapoptotic factor for human granulosa cells.Human Reproduction 01/2004; 18(12):2672-7. · 4.59 Impact Factor
Article: Prolactin and reproductive medicine.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This review aims to summarize current knowledge about prolactin, and outlines recent information that affects the management of patients with hyperprolactinaemia. The actions of prolactin have been clarified by studies of prolactin-receptor-deficient mice, which have a clear phenotype of reproductive failure at multiple sites. The treatment of patients with hyperprolactinaemia or prolactinoma is largely achieved using dopamine agonist drugs, which induce the shrinkage of pituitary prolactinomas as well as control of the endocrine syndrome. Recent findings indicate that successful cabergoline treatment may be able to induce long-term remission, allowing drug withdrawal in a substantial proportion of patients. At present, dopamine agonist drugs remain the best treatment for hyperprolactinaemic patients, and can help most affected women achieve pregnancy. Future work is likely to help understand the basis of long-term remission in patients with pituitary prolactinomas.Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology 09/2004; 16(4):331-7. DOI:10.1097/01.gco.0000136500.87452.b0 · 2.37 Impact Factor