Selection and characterization of fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of Campylobacter jejuni using enrofloxacin.
ABSTRACT Significant levels of fluoroquinolone resistance were obtained in Campylobacterjejuni isolates after an unique step of selection using enrofloxacin. An Asp90-to-Asn and a Thr86-to-Ile change in the gyrase subunit GyrA were found associated with a low (MIC < or = 8 /microg/ml) or a high (MIC > or = 16 microg/ml) level of resistance to ciprofloxacin, respectively. An association of both mutations conferred a higher level of resistance (MIC > or = 128 microg/ml). Further steps of selection increased the MICs of fluoroquinolones but did not result in a multiple antibiotic resistance phenotype. The Thr86-to-Ile change was found to confer different levels of resistance, pointing out other mechanisms of resistance. However, sequencing revealed no mutation in gyrB, and several attempts did not enable any amplification of the parC gene coding for topoisomerase IV, suggesting an absence of this secondary target in C. jejuni. In addition, no difference in the major outer membrane protein expression was found among the isolates. Furthermore, the use of the recently identified efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-beta-naphthylamide did not result in a significant decrease of fluoroquinolone MICs or change in the frequency of isolation of enrofloxacin-resistant mutants, and thus appears ineffective against fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates. Results obtained during ciprofloxacin accumulation studies confirmed that efflux probably plays a minor role in fluoroquinolone resistance of C. jejuni.
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ABSTRACT: Campylobacter is a leading foodborne bacterial pathogen, which causes gastroenteritis in humans. This pathogenic organism is increasingly resistant to antibiotics, especially fluoroquinolones and macrolides, which are the most frequently used antimicrobials for the treatment of campylobacteriosis when clinical therapy is warranted. As a zoonotic pathogen, Campylobacter has a broad animal reservoir and infects humans via contaminated food, water or milk. Antibiotic usage in both animal agriculture and human medicine, can influence the development of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter. This review will describe the trend in fluoroquinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter, summarize the mechanisms underlying the resistance to various antibiotics and discuss the unique features associated with the emergence, transmission and persistence of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter. Special attention will be given to recent findings and emphasis will be placed on Campylobacter resistance to fluoroquinolones and macrolides. A future perspective on antibiotic resistance and potential approaches for the control of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter, will also be discussed.Future Microbiology 04/2009; 4(2):189-200. · 3.82 Impact Factor
Article: A Fluoroquinolone Resistance Associated Mutation in gyrA Affects DNA Supercoiling in Campylobacter jejuni.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Campylobacter has become a concern for public health. To facilitate the control of FQ-resistant (FQ(R)) Campylobacter, it is necessary to understand the impact of FQ(R) on the fitness of Campylobacter in its natural hosts as understanding fitness will help to determine and predict the persistence of FQ(R)Campylobacter. Previously it was shown that acquisition of resistance to FQ antimicrobials enhanced the in vivo fitness of FQ(R)Campylobacter. In this study, we confirmed the role of the Thr-86-Ile mutation in GyrA in modulating Campylobacter fitness by reverting the mutation to the wild-type (WT) allele, which resulted in the loss of the fitness advantage. Additionally, we determined if the resistance-conferring GyrA mutations alter the enzymatic function of the DNA gyrase. Recombinant WT gyrase and mutant gyrases with three different types of mutations (Thr-86-Ile, Thr-86-Lys, and Asp-90-Asn), which are associated with FQ(R) in Campylobacter, were generated in E. coli and compared for their supercoiling activities using an in vitro assay. The mutant gyrase with the Thr-86-Ile change showed a greatly reduced supercoiling activity compared with the WT gyrase, while other mutant gyrases did not show an altered supercoiling. Furthermore, we measured DNA supercoiling within Campylobacter cells using a reporter plasmid. Consistent with the results from the in vitro supercoiling assay, the FQ(R) mutant carrying the Thr-86-Ile change in GyrA showed much less DNA supercoiling than the WT strain and the mutant strains carrying other mutations. Together, these results indicate that the Thr-86-Ile mutation, which is predominant in clinical FQ(R)Campylobacter, modulates DNA supercoiling homeostasis in FQ(R)Campylobacter.Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology. 01/2012; 2:21.
Article: Detection of gyrA mutation among clinical isolates of Campylobacter jejuni isolated in Egypt by MAMA-PCR.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Campylobacter spp are the major cause of enteritis in humans and more than 90% of reported infections are caused by Campylobacter jejuni. Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin are the antibiotics of choice for treatment. An increase in the frequency of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter has been reported globally due to a single base mutation (C-257 to T) in codon 86 of the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene altering the amino acid sequence from threonine at position 86 to isoleucine (Thr-86 to Ile). Campylobacter spp (n = 118) were selected from a collection of Egyptian isolates spanning 1998 to 2005. The presence of C. jejuni gyrA gene was confirmed in each isolate by a PCR assay amplifying 368 bp portion of the gyrA gene. C to T alteration was detected by the mismatch amplification mutation assay MAMA PCR. The MIC of nalidixic acid (NA) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) was determined by E-test. C. jejuni gyrA gene was detected in 100 of the Campylobacter spp studied; the other 18 isolates were found to be Campylobacter coli by lpxA PCR. The mutation was detected in 89 C. jejuni resistant isolates with MIC values (NA; 8 - >256 μg/ml) and (CIP; 4 - >32 μg/ml). The other 11 sensitive C. jejuni isolates with MIC values (NA; 0.38 - 3 µg/ml) and (CIP; 0.03 - 0.125 µg/ml) were not amplified by the MAMA primers. There was 100% congruence with MAMA PCR, MIC results and gyrA gene sequence analysis. In Egypt the main mechanism for resistance to fluoroquinolones is an alteration in the gyrA QRDR. MAMA PCR provides an economical and rapid means for screening fluoroquinolone resistance.The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 01/2010; 4(9):546-54. · 1.19 Impact Factor