Glycated high-density lipoprotein regulates reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT Nonenzymatic glycosylation of plasma proteins may contribute to the excess risk of developing atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. Although it is believed that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is glycosylated at an increased level in diabetic individuals, little is known about a possible linkage between glycated HDL and endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. To clarify whether glucose-modified HDL affects the function of endothelial cells, we first examined herein the level of H(2)O(2) generation from cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) exposed to a glycated oxidized HDL (gly-ox-HDL) prepared in vitro. Incubation for 48 hours with 100 microg/mL of gly-ox-HDL induced significant release of H(2)O(2) from cells and gly-ox-HDL-induced H(2)O(2) formation was inhibited in the presence of diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. In addition, stimulation of HAECs with gly-ox-HDL for 48 hours elicited a marked downregulation of catalase and Cu(2+), Zn(2+)-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), suggesting H(2)O(2) formation by gly-ox-HDL to be due to a disturbance involving oxidant and antioxidant enzymes in the cells. Treatment of HAECs with gly-ox-HDL attenuated the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), but not inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and this was followed by decreased production of nitric oxide (NO) by the cells. Furthermore, in vitro experiments with glycated HDL (gly-HDL) in the presence of 2 mmol/L EDTA and Cu(2+)-oxidized HDL suggested the effect of gly-HDL on endothelial function to be possibly potentiated by additional oxidative modification. Taking all of the above findings together, gly-ox-HDL may lead to the deterioration of vascular function through altered production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in endothelial cells.
- SourceAvailable from: Angélique Levoye
Article: HDL and endothelial protection.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: High density lipoproteins (HDLs) represent a family of particles characterized by the presence of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and by their ability to reverse transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues back to the liver. In addition to this function, HDLs display pleiotropic effects including antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic or anti-proteolytic properties that account for their protective action on endothelial cells (ECs). Vasodilatation via production of nitric oxide (NO) is also a hallmark of HDL action on ECs. ECs express receptors for apoA-I/HDLs that mediate intracellular signalling and potentially participate in the internalization of these particles. In this review, we will detail the different effects of HDLs on the endothelium in normal and pathological conditions with a particular focus on the potential use of HDL therapy to restore endothelial function and integrity.British Journal of Pharmacology 03/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a major reactive product of lipid peroxidation, is believed to play a central role in atherogenic actions triggered by oxidized lipoproteins. An aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C15 efficiently reduces HNE and is distributed in many rat tissues including endothelial cells. In this study, we investigated whether AKR1C15 acts as a protective factor against endothelial damage elicited by HNE and oxidized lipoproteins. Treatment of rat endothelial cells with HNE provoked apoptosis through reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activation in the cells. AKR1C15 converted HNE into less toxic 1,4-dihydroxy-2-nonene, and its overexpression markedly decreased the susceptibility of the cells to HNE. The forced expression of AKR1C15 also significantly suppressed the loss of cell viability caused by oxidized low-density lipoprotein and its lipidic fraction. Furthermore, the treatment of the cells with sublethal concentrations of HNE resulted in up-regulation of AKR1C15, which was partially abrogated by the ROS inhibitors. Collectively, these data indicate an anti-atherogenic function of AKR1C15 through the protection of endothelial cells from damage elicited by toxic lipids such as HNE.Chemico-biological interactions 12/2010; 191(1-3):364-70. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Diabetic HDL had diminished capacity to stimulate endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, migration, and adhesion to extracellular matrix. The mechanism of such dysfunction is poorly understood and we therefore sought to determine the mechanistic features of diabetic HDL dysfunction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that the dysfunction of diabetic HDL on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was associated with the down regulation of the HDL receptor protein, SR-BI. Akt-phosphorylation in HUVECs was induced in a biphasic manner by normal HDL. While diabetic HDL induced Akt phosphorylation normally after 20 minutes, the phosphorylation observed 24 hours after diabetic HDL treatment was reduced. To determine the role of SR-BI down regulation on diminished EC responses of diabetic HDL, Mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs) were isolated from wild type and SR-BI (-/-) mice, and treated with normal and diabetic HDL. The proliferative and migratory effects of normal HDL on wild type MAECs were greatly diminished in SR-BI (-/-) cells. In contrast, response to diabetic HDL was impaired in both types suggesting diminished effectiveness of diabetic HDL on EC proliferation and migration might be due to the down regulation of SR-BI. Additionally, SR-BI down regulation diminishes diabetic HDL's capacity to activate Akt chronically. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Diabetic HDL was dysfunctional in promoting EC proliferation, migration, and adhesion to matrix which was associated with the down-regulation of SR-BI. Additionally, SR-BI down regulation diminishes diabetic HDL's capacity to activate Akt chronically.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e48530. · 3.73 Impact Factor