Enteral application of an immunoglobulin-enriched colostrum milk preparation for reducing endotoxin translocation and acute phase response in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery--a randomized placebo-controlled pilot trial.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the influence of enteral application of an immunoglobulin enriched bovine milk preparation on endotoxin plasma levels, endotoxin neutralizing capacity of plasma (ENC) and the acute phase response (IL-6, CRP) during and after cardiac surgery, in a pilot study.
60 patients who underwent coronary bypass operations, were evenly enrolled in a placebo-controlled randomized study. The patients were treated by enteral application of either 42 g of a bovine colostrum milk preparation per day or placebo, for 2 days preoperatively. Endotoxin and ENC were sequentially determined intra- and postoperatively by a chromogenic modification of the limulus amebocyte lysate test. Interleukin-6, CRP, transferrin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, albumin, apo-A, apo-B, IgG, IgA, IgM were determined by ELISA and nephelometrically. The clinical course was followed up by daily evaluation of the Apache-II-score.
Demographic data were comparable in both groups. No differences of the Apache-II-score (verum group: 6.5 +/- 1.9 vs. controls: 6.8 +/- 1.8 on admission) were observed. Endotoxin and ENC levels were elevated at the end of the operation and seemed to have a trigger function for the acute phase response. However, there was no reduction (calculated as the area under the curve) in patients receiving the colostrum milk preparation throughout the observation period. Plasma levels of endotoxin binding proteins did not differ. Plasma IL-6 concentrations increased to maximal median values of 655 pg/ml in the verum and 786 pg/ml in the control group, respectively 2 and 6 h after surgery. In the colostrum group, there was a tendency to reduced IL-6 levels throughout the observation period. CRP-levels of all patients peaked 48 h after the operation but were lower (p = 0.034) in the verum group.
This study revealed that endotoxemia occurs early in an elective non-intestinal surgical intervention, and is followed by a subsequent increase in mediators of the acute phase reaction. The prophylactic enteral application of a bovine milk preparation for two days in cardiac patients did reduce postoperative CRP-plasma levels but, contrary to a former double-blind study in abdominal surgery, failed to curtail perioperative endotoxemia. One reason could be the amount of colostrum preparation administered was too small.
- SourceAvailable from: Cecilia M Shing
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- "The benefi cial effects of bovine colostrum in establishing integrity of the calf immune system have contributed to its use by humans in an attempt to enhance immune function. Bovine colostrum supplementation has been associated with a reduction in peak acute phase protein concentration after surgery (Bolke and others 2002), reduced incidence of diarrhea (Kamlesh 2006) and reduced reporting of upper respiratory illness symptoms (Brinkworth and Buckley 2003). Moreover, bovine colostrum has become increasingly popular as a supplement in athletes to maintain immune function during periods of heavy training associated with immune suppression (Crooks and others 2006). "
ABSTRACT: Bovine colostrum has been shown to influence the cytokine production of bovine leukocytes. However, it remains unknown whether processed bovine colostrum, a supplement popular among athletes to enhance immune function, is able to modulate cytokine secretion of human lymphocytes and monocytes. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of a commercially available bovine colostrum protein concentrate (CPC) to stimulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Blood was sampled from four healthy male endurance athletes who had abstained from exercise for 48 h. PBMCs were separated and cultured with bovine CPC concentrations of 0 (control), 1.25, 2.5, and 5% with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (3 microg/mL) and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) (2.5 microg/mL). Cell supernatants were collected at 6 and 24 h of culture for the determination of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-2 concentrations. Bovine CPC significantly stimulated the release of IFN-gamma, IL-10, and IL-2 (p < 0.03). The addition of LPS to PBMCs cocultured with bovine CPC significantly stimulated the release of IL-2 and inhibited the early release of TNF, IL-6, and IL-4 (p < 0.02). Phytohemagglutinin stimulation in combination with bovine CPC significantly increased the secretion of IL-10 and IL-2 at 6 h of culture and inhibited IFN-gamma and TNF (p < 0.05). This data show that a commercial bovine CPC is able to modulate in vitro cytokine production of human PBMCs. Alterations in cytokine secretion may be a potential mechanism for reported benefits associated with supplementation.Journal of interferon & cytokine research: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 11/2008; 29(1):37-44. DOI:10.1089/jir.2008.0015
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ABSTRACT: Bovine colostrums are the "early" milk produced by cows during the first several days post-parturition. This "early" milk has a nutrient profile and immunological composition that differs substantially from "mature" milk. Included in the nutrient profile are higher amounts of immunoglobulins, growth factors, cytokines, and nucleosides than are found in milk. Bovine colostrums are also rich in oligosaccharides, antimicrobials, and immune-regulating factors. Available evidence suggests a beneficial effect of supplementation of bovine colostrums in improving body composition, aspects of athletic performance, diarrhea in persons with immune-deficiency syndromes, NSAID-induced gastrointestinal disturbances, and aspects of the acute phase response that occurs secondary to surgery. Specific hyperimmune bovine colostrums, produced to have high neutralizing titer activity against Cryptosporidia, H. pylori, measles, rotavirus, and Shigella sp., appear to have clinical utility in conditions associated with these infectious organisms.Alternative medicine review: a journal of clinical therapeutic 12/2003; 8(4):378-94.
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ABSTRACT: The biological function of bovine colostral immunoglobulins is to provide the newborn calf with adequate passive immune protection against microbial infections. Immunoglobulin preparations designed for farm animals are commercially available, and some colostrum-based products are marketed also for humans as dietary supplements. The concentration of specific antibodies against a certain pathogenic microorganism can be raised in colostrum and milk by immunizing cows with this pathogen or its antigen. Advances in bioseparation and chromatographic techniques have made it possible to fractionate and enrich these antibodies and formulate so-called hyperimmune colostral or milk preparations. Their efficacy in prevention and treatment of various microbial infections has been evaluated in numerous studies. Immune milk preparations have proven effective in prophylaxis against infections caused by a variety of gastrointestinal pathogens. Their therapeutic efficacy, however, seems more limited. A few commercial immune milk products are already on market and more applications can be expected in the coming years. This article reviews the recent progress made in isolation techniques of bovine immunoglobulins and the application of colostral and immune milk preparations in fighting various microbial infectious diseases in humans.International Dairy Journal 11/2006; 16(11-16):1262-1271. DOI:10.1016/j.idairyj.2006.06.003