Binding of a candidate splice regulator to a calcitonin-specific splice enhancer regulates calcitonin/CGRP pre-mRNA splicing
ABSTRACT The calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pre-mRNA is alternatively processed in a tissue-specific manner leading to the production of calcitonin mRNA in thyroid C cells and CGRP mRNA in neurons. A candidate calcitonin/CGRP splice regulator (CSR) isolated from rat brain was shown to inhibit calcitonin-specific splicing in vitro. CSR specifically binds to two regions in the calcitonin-specific exon 4 RNA previously demonstrated to function as a bipartate exonic splice enhancer (ESE). The two regions, A and B element, are necessary for inclusion of exon 4 into calcitonin mRNA. A novel RNA footprinting method based on the UV cross-linking assay was used to define the site of interaction between CSR and B element RNA. Base changes at the CSR binding site prevented CSR binding to B element RNA and CSR was unable to inhibit in vitro splicing of pre-mRNAs containing the mutated CSR binding site. When expressed in cells that normally produce predominantly CGRP mRNA, a calcitonin/CGRP gene containing the mutated CSR binding site expressed predominantly calcitonin mRNA. These observations demonstrate that CSR binding to the calcitonin-specific ESE regulates calcitonin/CGRP pre-mRNA splicing.
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ABSTRACT: The research on modeling and simulation of complex biological systems is getting more important in Systems Biology. In this respect, we have developed Hybrid Function Petri net (HFPN) that was newly developed from existing Petri net because of their intuitive graphical representation and their capabilities for mathematical analyses. However, in the process of modeling metabolic, gene regulatory or signal transduction pathways with the architecture, we have realized three extensions of HFPN, (i) an entity should be extended to contain more than one value, (ii) an entity should be extended to handle other primitive types, e.g. boolean, string, (iii) an entity should be extended to handle more advanced type called object that consists of variables and methods, are necessary for modeling biological systems with Petri net based architecture. To deal with it, we define a new enhanced Petri net called hybrid functional Petri net with extension (HFPNe). To demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancements, we model and simulate with HFPNe four biological processes that are diffcult to represent with the previous architecture HFPN.Genome informatics. International Conference on Genome Informatics 02/2004; 15(1):180-97.
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ABSTRACT: The calcitonin/calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pre-mRNA is alternatively processed in a tissue-specific manner leading to the production of calcitonin mRNA in thyroid C cells and CGRP mRNA in neurons. Sequences in the human calcitonin-specific fourth exon function as an exonic splice enhancer (ESE) which is required for incorporation of exon 4 into calcitonin mRNA. Deletion of these sequences from the rat calcitonin/CGRP gene was reported to have no effect on calcitonin splicing. We demonstrate that sequences in the rat calcitonin/CGRP fourth exon act as an ESE. In addition, we observed that three proteins in HeLa nuclear extract, of apparent molecular weights of 40, 55 and 85 kDa, specifically interact with the exon 4 ESE. The 40-kDa protein is human transformer 2β (hTra2β), a homolog of the Drosophila splice regulator transformer 2. hTra2β is required for calcitonin splicing in vitro, one of the first biological functions identified for hTra2β. The 55-kDa protein is SRp55, a member of the SR family of phosphoproteins. Binding of SRp55 to an ESE required for calcitonin mRNA splicing suggests that the different levels of SRp55 present in different cell types may regulate calcitonin/CGRP alternative splicing.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Structure and Expression 01/2003; 1625(2):141-152. DOI:10.1016/S0167-4781(02)00600-0 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Calcitonin (CT), whose secretion from thyroid glands is regulated by increases in the concentration of extracellular Ca(2+), is a well-known hormone that regulates calcium homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the gene expression dependent on Ca(2+) have not been clarified. The downstream regulatory element (DRE) antagonist modulator (DREAM) was recently identified as a Ca(2+)-dependent transcriptional repressor. In the present study, we investigated the possible involvement of DREAM in the regulation of CT gene expression and secretion. A luciferase assay using TT cells, a thyroid carcinoma cell line, showed that a particular region in the CT gene promoter repressed the promoter activity under basal conditions but induced the activity when the Ca(2+) concentration was increased. We found two DRE sequences in a region located upstream from the transcription start site. Gel retardation assay confirmed that DREAM bound to the CT-DRE and also indicated that DREAM bound to the DRE in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. We generated stable transfectants of TT cells with wild-type or mutant DREAM, which lacked the responsiveness to Ca(2+) changes. In contrast to the wild type, overexpression of the mutant DREAM inhibited the increase in CT secretion induced by a calcium ionophore. The addition of forskolin to increase cAMP activated the CT promoter, probably by the interaction of DREAM with cAMP-responsive element binding proteins, independent on the activation by Ca(2+). Together, these results suggest that DREAM plays an important role in human CT gene expression in a Ca(2+)- and cAMP-dependent manner.Endocrinology 11/2006; 147(10):4608-17. DOI:10.1210/en.2006-0254 · 4.64 Impact Factor