Human toxocariasis: a seroepidemiological survey in the municipality of Campinas (SP), Brazil.
ABSTRACT The occurrence of human Toxocara infection was evaluated in three neighborhoods of the periphery of the Campinas municipality (Jardim Santa Mônica, Jardim São Marcos and Jardim Campineiro) in 1999. Forty residences and 138 residents were randomly selected by drawing lots and were submitted to a seroepidemiological survey, which included blood collection for the immunoenzymatic detection (ELISA) of anti-Toxocara antibodies and a blood count, and the application of a semi-structured questionnaire for the evaluation of epidemiological data. Significant levels of anti-Toxocara antibodies were detected in 23.9% of the 1999 samples. No significant difference in the frequency of infection according to age was observed. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs was observed in 12.3 and 14.0% of 57 soil samples collected in the same region in December 1998 and July 1999, respectively. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression of the data obtained from the questionnaires and of the results of the serological tests, suggest a significant influence of socioeconomic variables on the frequency of human infection with Toxocara under the conditions prevalent in the study area.
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ABSTRACT: Toxocariasis is a parasitic infection produced by helminths that cannot reach their adult stage in humans. For their etiological species (Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati), man is a paratenic host. Infection by such helminths can produce a variety of clinical manifestations, such as: visceral larvae migrans syndrome, ocular larvae migrans syndrome and covert toxocariasis. In the visceral larvae migrans syndrome, the organs that are mainly involved include liver, lungs, skin, nervous system, muscles, kidneys and the heart. Regarding the latter, the importance of cardiovascular manifestations in toxocariasis, as well as its clinical relevance, has increasingly begun to be recognized. The current article is based on a systematic information search, focused mainly on the clinical and pathological aspects of cardiovascular manifestations in toxocariasis, including its pathophysiology, laboratory findings, diagnosis and therapeutical options, with the objective of highlighting its importance as a zoonosis and its relevance to the fields of cardiovascular medicine in adults and children.Archivos de cardiología de México 02/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Human toxocariasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease that represents extensive morbidity in many countries. Caused by Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, the clinical spectrum of this helminthiasis can be extended from asymptomatic forms up to life-threatening syndromes, such as the visceral larva migrans. Its epidemiology and burden is not clear; many times it is not diagnosed and, in most countries, it is not a notifiable disease. Some recent reviews have shown a large range of variability in terms of reported seroprevalence by countries. In this review, we summarized information regarding human toxocariasis burden of disease and control efforts in the region of the Americas.Current Tropical Medicine Reports. 03/2014; 1(1).
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ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Seroprevalence data illustrate that human exposure to Toxocara is frequent. Environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is assumed to be the best indicator of human exposure, but increased risk of exposure has also been associated with many other factors. Reported associations are inconsistent, however, and there is still ambiguity regarding the factors driving the onset of Toxocara antibody positivity. The objective of this work was to assess the validity of our current conceptual understanding of the key processes driving human exposure to Toxocara. We constructed an agent-based model predicting Toxocara antibody positivity (as a measure of exposure) in children. Exposure was assumed to depend on the joint probability of 3 parameters: (1) environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs, (2) larvation of these eggs and (3) the age-related contact with these eggs. This joint probability was linked to processes of acquired humoral immunity, influencing the rate of antibody seroreversion. The results of the simulation were validated against published data from 5 different geographical settings. Using simple rules and a stochastic approach with parameter estimates derived from the respective contexts, plausible serological patterns emerged from the model in nearly all settings. Our approach leads to novel insights in the transmission dynamics of Toxocara.Parasitology 04/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor