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Atopic dermatitis

University of Bonn, Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 02/2003; 361(9352):151-60. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12193-9
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Atopic dermatitis is a highly pruritic chronic inflammatory skin disorder affecting 10-20% of children worldwide. Symptoms can persist or begin in adulthood. It is also the most common cause of occupational skin disease in adults. This disease results from an interaction between susceptibility genes, the host's environment, pharmacological abnormalities, skin barrier defects, and immunological factors. New management approaches have evolved from advances in our understanding of the pathobiology of this common skin disorder.

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    • "The altered immune function received special attention as the major factor contributing to the onset, development, and severity of AD. AD is well characterized by having clinical phenotype such as elevated serum IgE levels, peripheral eosinophilia, and eczematous skin lesions infiltrated by inflammatory cells [4] [5]. NC/Nga mice were the first representative animal model for investigating and developing treatment on AD-like skin disease [6, 7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen water (HW) produced by electrolysis of water has characteristics of extremely low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) value and high dissolved hydrogen (DH). It has been proved to have various beneficial effects including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects; however, HW effect on atopic dermatitis (AD), an inflammatory skin disorder, is poorly documented. In the present study, we examined the immunological effect of drinking HW on Dermatophagoides farinae-induced AD-like skin in NC/Nga mice. Mice were administered with HW and purified water (PW) for 25 days. We evaluated the serum concentration of pro-inflammatory (TNF- α ), Th1 (IFN- γ , IL-2, and IL-12p70), Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10), and cytokine expressed by both subsets (GM-CSF) to assess their possible relationship to the severity of AD. The serum levels of cytokines such as IL-10, TNF- α , IL-12p70, and GM-CSF of mice administered with HW was significantly reduced as compared to PW group. The results suggest that HW affects allergic contact dermatitis through modulation of Th1 and Th2 responses in NC/Nga mice. This is the first note on the drinking effect of HW on AD, clinically implying a promising potential remedy for treatment of AD.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11/2013; 2013:538673. DOI:10.1155/2013/538673 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, pruritic, and inflammatory skin disorder (Leung et al., 2004). Skin lesions associated with AD exhibit severe rash, edema, hemorrhage, and desquamation (Leung and Bieber, 2003b). Pathological changes associated with AD include epidermal thickening and the infiltration of inflammatory cells, such as eosinophils and mast cells (Imokawa et al., 1991). "
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    ABSTRACT: Ginseng and ginsenosides are frequently used in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Recently, 20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (GPD), the main metabolite of ginsenosides, was reported to have both anti-allergic and anti-pruritic effects. The immunomodulatory effects of GPD-fortified ginseng extract (GFGE) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like symptoms in mice were investigated. This study was designed to investigate the preventive effect of GFGE on AD-like symptoms. The effects of orally administered GFGE on Dermatophagoides farinae body extract (DFE)-induced AD-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice were assessed by analyzing dermatitis score, ear thickness, scratching time, skin histological changes, and serum level of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC). In addition, splenocytes were isolated from the mice and stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies to produce cytokines. Oral administration of GFGE significantly attenuated DFE-induced increases in dermatitis score, ear thickness, scratching time, and severity of skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. GFGE treatment also reduced level of MDC in serum, infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells in skin, and production of cytokines in splenocytes. These results suggest that GFGE might ameliorate DFE-induced AD-like symptoms and be an alternative therapeutic agent for the prevention of AD.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 11/2013; 151(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2013.10.058 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    • "The present study examined the effects of Indirubin on ACD. DNCB-induced skin inflammation is accompanied by changes in IgE and cutaneous cytokine production (Leung and Bieber, 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Indirubin, isolated from Indigo naturalis (Apiaceae) is a purple 3,2- bisindole and a stable isomer of indigo. Although it is known to have anti-inflammatory activities, its mechanism of action has not been elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven-week-old female BALB/c mice were sensitized with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNCB) to induce skin inflammation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to assess epidermal and dermal hyperplasia, which were determined by measuring the thicknesses of the epidermis and dermis, respectively. We also evaluated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and cytokines production, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-4, 6 and Interferon (IFN)-gamma. In addition, we investigated nuclear factor (NF)-κB, IκB-α and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activities for verifying the molecular mechanism of inflammation. RESULTS: Indirubin treatment suppressed skin inflammation in DNCB-exposed mice. The skin lesions were significantly thinner in the Indirubin-treated group than in untreated controls, and the hyperkeratosis disappeared. Indirubin reduced the total serum IgE level and cytokines production. In addition, it normalized NF-κB, IκB-α and MAP kinase expression. CONCLUSIONS: Indirubin might be a useful treatment for allergic contact dermatitis via regulating the co-expression of T helper (Th) 1 and 2 cell-mediated immune responses.
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