Atopic dermatitis

University of Bonn, Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 39.21). 02/2003; 361(9352):151-60. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12193-9
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Atopic dermatitis is a highly pruritic chronic inflammatory skin disorder affecting 10-20% of children worldwide. Symptoms can persist or begin in adulthood. It is also the most common cause of occupational skin disease in adults. This disease results from an interaction between susceptibility genes, the host's environment, pharmacological abnormalities, skin barrier defects, and immunological factors. New management approaches have evolved from advances in our understanding of the pathobiology of this common skin disorder.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Eczematous skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis are common and are characterised by the appearance of oozing, erythema, crusting, papules and, in long standing lesions, lichenification. After the successful introduction of the topical immunomodulators as a new topical therapy of atopic eczema, several other therapeutic compounds have been developed in the last 2 years. These are presented in this article based on recent patents. Primarily, developments for the treatment of pruritus and inflammation are molecules affecting the H4-receptor, the cannabinoid receptors and the prostanoid receptors, but antagonists targeting PDE4, CCR-1 or -3, or chemoattractants have also been developed. The latest patents on glucocorticosteroids and their compositions are discussed, also, the antibody-derived and cytokine-targeted therapeutical agents. In the latter case, however, the number of patents has decreased due to their time-consuming and cost-intensive production. Furthermore, one interesting patent deals with improvement of the skin barrier function and enhancement of epidermal cohesion through stratum corneum acidification. Finally, new photosensitisers or pro-photosensitisers for photodynamic therapy to treat T-cell-mediated skin disorders have been claimed. However, most of the discussed developments will need application of clinical efficacy and safety in the near future.
    Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents 09/2004; 14(9):1257-1271. DOI:10.1517/13543776.14.9.1257 · 3.44 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cytokines are key to control cellular communication. Interleukin-31 (IL-31) was recently discovered as a new member of the IL-6 family of cytokines. IL-31 signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of OSMR and IL-31RA, a complex that stimulates the JAK-STAT, the RAS/ERK and the PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathways. The available data suggests that IL-31 is important for both innate and adaptive immunity in tissues that are in close contact with the environment, i.e. the skin, the airways and the lung, and the lining of the intestine. Enhanced expression of IL-31 is associated with a number of diseases, including pruritic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, but also in allergy and inflammatory bowel disease. In these tissues IL-31 coordinates the interaction of different immune cells, including T-cells, mast cells, and eosinophils, with epithelial cells. In this review we have summarized the available data on IL-31 and its receptor, their expression pattern and how they are regulated. We describe the current state of knowledge of the involvement of IL-31 in diseases, both in humans and in mouse models. From these studies it is becoming clear that IL-31 plays an important role in the proper functioning of the skin and of airway and intestinal epithelia. The findings available suggest that IL-31 might be an interesting target for directed drug therapy.
    European journal of cell biology 10/2011; 91(6-7):552-66. DOI:10.1016/j.ejcb.2011.07.006 · 3.70 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Scutellaria baicalensis (SB) is one of the most widely used medicinal herbs for the treatment of inflammation. In this study, we investigated the antiallergic effect of SB in vivo and in vitro. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received intradermal injections of anti-DNP IgE at each of three dorsal skin sites. Forty-eight hours later, each rat received an injection of DNP-HSA in saline containing 4% Evans blue through the dorsal vein of the penis. One hour before injection, SB extract was administered orally. The dorsal skin of the rats was removed and the pigment area measured. In addition, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs) were cultured and purified to investigate histamine release. In vitro, human mast cells (HMC-1) were pretreated with SB extract for 30min before stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187. The effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase expression were investigated using TNF-α and IL-8 assays, and Western blotting analysis of HMC-1 cells. SB treatment inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction compared to the control group, and histamine release decreased significantly following treatment of RPMCs with SB. In HMC-1 cells, SB restored IL-8 and TNF-α expression and inhibited MAP kinase expression in compound 48/80-induced HMC-1 cells. These data suggest that SB may prove to be a useful anti-inflammatory agent through its downregulation of the expression of various inflammatory mediators.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 03/2012; 141(1):345-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.044 · 2.94 Impact Factor