The high-pathogenicity island is absent in human pathogens of Salmonella enterica subspecies I but present in isolates of subspecies III and VI.
ABSTRACT In this study we tested 74 Salmonella strains of all eight Salmonella groups and were able to demonstrate the presence of two high-pathogenicity island types in strains of Salmonella groups IIIa, IIIb, and VI. Most high-pathogenicity island-positive isolates produced yersiniabactin under iron-limited conditions and were positive for the high-molecular-weight proteins HMWP1 and HMWP2.
Article: Yersiniabactin production by Pseudomonas syringae and Escherichia coli, and description of a second yersiniabactin locus evolutionary group.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The siderophore and virulence factor yersiniabactin is produced by Pseudomonas syringae. Yersiniabactin was originally detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC); commonly used PCR tests proved ineffective. Yersiniabactin production in P. syringae correlated with the possession of irp1 located in a predicted yersiniabactin locus. Three similarly divergent yersiniabactin locus groups were determined: the Yersinia pestis group, the P. syringae group, and the Photorhabdus luminescens group; yersiniabactin locus organization is similar in P. syringae and P. luminescens. In P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, the locus has a high GC content (63.4% compared with 58.4% for the chromosome and 60.1% and 60.7% for adjacent regions) but it lacks high-pathogenicity-island features, such as the insertion in a tRNA locus, the integrase, and insertion sequence elements. In P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and pv. phaseolicola 1448A, the locus lies between homologues of Psyr_2284 and Psyr_2285 of P. syringae pv. syringae B728a, which lacks the locus. Among tested pseudomonads, a PCR test specific to two yersiniabactin locus groups detected a locus in genospecies 3, 7, and 8 of P. syringae, and DNA hybridization within P. syringae also detected a locus in the pathovars phaseolicola and glycinea. The PCR and HPLC methods enabled analysis of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli. HPLC-proven yersiniabactin-producing E. coli lacked modifications found in irp1 and irp2 in the human pathogen CFT073, and it is not clear whether CFT073 produces yersiniabactin. The study provides clues about the evolution and dispersion of yersiniabactin genes. It describes methods to detect and study yersiniabactin producers, even where genes have evolved.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 07/2006; 72(6):3814-25. · 3.83 Impact Factor
Article: Shiga toxin 2e-producing Escherichia coli isolates from humans and pigs differ in their virulence profiles and interactions with intestinal epithelial cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Thirteen Escherichia coli strains harboring stx2e were isolated from 11,056 human stools. This frequency corresponded to the presence of the stx2e allele in 1.7% of all Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains. The strains harboring stx2e were associated with mild diarrhea (n = 9) or asymptomatic infections (n = 4). Because STEC isolates possessing stx2e are porcine pathogens, we compared the human STEC isolates with stx2e-harboring E. coli isolated from piglets with edema disease and postweaning diarrhea. All pig isolates possessed the gene encoding the F18 adhesin, and the majority possessed adhesin involved in diffuse adherence; these adhesins were absent from all the human STEC isolates. In contrast, the high-pathogenicity island encoding an iron uptake system was found only in human isolates. Host-specific patterns of interaction with intestinal epithelial cells were observed. All human isolates adhered to human intestinal epithelial cell lines T84 and HCT-8 but not to pig intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2. In contrast, the pig isolates completely lysed human epithelial cells but not IPEC-J2 cells, to which most of them adhered. Our data demonstrate that E. coli isolates producing Shiga toxin 2e have imported specific virulence and fitness determinants which allow them to adapt to the specific hosts in which they cause various forms of disease.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 01/2006; 71(12):8855-63. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The horizontal transfer of genetic elements plays a major role in bacterial evolution. The high-pathogenicity island (HPI), which codes for an iron uptake system, is present and highly conserved in various Enterobacteriaceae, suggesting its recent acquisition by lateral gene transfer. The aim of this work was to determine whether the HPI has kept its ability to be transmitted horizontally. We demonstrate here that the HPI is indeed transferable from a donor to a recipient Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain. This transfer was observable only when the donor and recipient bacteria were cocultured at low temperatures in a liquid medium. When optimized conditions were used (bacteria actively growing in an iron-deprived medium at 4 degrees C), the frequency of HPI transfer reached approximately 10(-8). The island was transferable to various serotype I strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis and to Yersinia pestis, but not to Y. pseudotuberculosis strains of serotypes II and IV or to Yersinia enterocolitica. Upon transfer, the HPI was inserted almost systematically into the asn3 tRNA locus. Acquisition of the HPI resulted in the loss of the resident island, suggesting an incompatibility between two copies of the HPI within the same strain. Transfer of the island did not require a functional HPI-borne insertion-excision machinery and was RecA dependent in the recipient but not the donor strain, suggesting that integration of the island into the recipient chromosome occurs via a mechanism of homologous recombination. This lateral transfer also involved the HPI-adjacent sequences, leading to the mobilization of a chromosomal region at least 46 kb in size.Journal of Bacteriology 06/2005; 187(10):3352-8. · 3.83 Impact Factor