Cognitive behavioural interventions for sleep problems in adults aged 60+.
ABSTRACT The prevalence of sleep problems in adulthood increases with age. While not all sleep changes are pathological in later life, severe disturbances may lead to depression, cognitive impairments, deterioration of quality of life, significant stresses for carers and increased healthcare costs. The most common treatment for sleep disorders (particularly insomnia) is pharmacological. The efficacy of non-drug interventions has been suggested to be slower than pharmacological methods, but with no risk of drug-related tolerance or dependency. Cognitive and behavioural treatments for sleep problems aim to improve sleep by changing poor sleep habits, promoting better sleep hygiene practices and by challenging negative thoughts, attitudes and beliefs about sleep.
To assess the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural interventions in improving sleep quality, duration and efficiency amongst older adults (aged 60 and above).
The following databases were searched: MEDLINE (1966 - October 2001); EMBASE (1980 - January 2002), CINAHL ( 1982 - January 2002; PsychINFO 1887 to 2002; The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2002); National Research Register (NRR ). Bibliographies of existing reviews in the area, as well as of all trial reports obtained, were searched. Experts in the field were consulted.
Randomised controlled trials of cognitive behavioural treatments for primary insomnia where 80% or more of participants were over 60. Participants must have been screened to exclude those with dementia and/or depression.
Abstracts of studies identified in searches of electronic databases were read and assessed to determine whether they might meet the inclusion criteria. Data were analysed separately depending on whether results had been obtained subjectively or objectively.
Six trials, including 282 participants with insomnia, examined the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural treatments (CBT) for sleep problems in this population. The final total of participants included in the meta-analysis was 224. The data suggest a mild effect of CBT for sleep problems in older adults, best demonstrated for sleep maintenance insomnia.
When the possible side-effects of standard treatment (hypnotics) are considered, there is an argument to be made for clinical use of cognitive-behavioural treatments. Research is needed to establish the likely predictors of success with such treatments. As it may well be the case that the treatment efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy itself is not durable, the provision of "top-up" ("refresher" sessions of CBT training to improve durability of effect are worthy of investigation.
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ABSTRACT: s u m m a r y Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is effective for treatment of primary insomnia. There has been no synthesis of studies quantifying this effect on insomnia comorbid with medical and psy-chiatric disorders using rigorous selection criteria. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of CBT-I in studies including patients with medical or psychiatric disorders. Studies were identified from 1985 through February 2014 using multiple databases and bibliography searches. Inclusion was limited to randomized controlled trials of CBT-I in adult patients with insomnia diagnosed using standardized criteria, who additionally had a comorbid medical or psychiatric condition. Twenty-three studies including 1379 patients met inclusion criteria. Based on weighted mean differences, CBT-I improved subjective sleep quality post-treatment, with large treatment effects for the insomnia severity index and Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Sleep diaries showed a 20 min reduction in sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset, 17 min improvement in total sleep time, and 9% improvement in sleep efficiency post-treatment, similar to findings of meta-analyses of CBT-I in older adults. Treatment effects were durable up to 18 mo. Results of actigraphy were similar to but of smaller magnitude than subjective measures. CBT-I is an effective, durable treatment for comorbid insomnia.Sleep Medicine Reviews 01/2015; 23:54-67. · 9.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia has been confirmed, dissemination depends on the balance of benefits and costs. The study aimed to examine the cost-effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 4 weekly individual sessions.Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 09/2014; · 2.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A significant body of research has investigated the effects of physical activity on sleep, yet this research has not been systematically aggregated in over a decade. As a result, the magnitude and moderators of these effects are unclear. This meta-analytical review examines the effects of acute and regular exercise on sleep, incorporating a range of outcome and moderator variables. PubMed and PsycINFO were used to identify 66 studies for inclusion in the analysis that were published through May 2013. Analyses reveal that acute exercise has small beneficial effects on total sleep time, sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, stage 1 sleep, and slow wave sleep, a moderate beneficial effect on wake time after sleep onset, and a small effect on rapid eye movement sleep. Regular exercise has small beneficial effects on total sleep time and sleep efficiency, small-to-medium beneficial effects on sleep onset latency, and moderate beneficial effects on sleep quality. Effects were moderated by sex, age, baseline physical activity level of participants, as well as exercise type, time of day, duration, and adherence. Significant moderation was not found for exercise intensity, aerobic/anaerobic classification, or publication date. Results were discussed with regards to future avenues of research and clinical application to the treatment of insomnia.Journal of behavioral medicine. 01/2015;