Fox odour affects corticosterone release but not hippocampal serotonin reuptake and open field behaviour in rats.
ABSTRACT Group-housed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats exposed for 1 h to 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT, a component of fox feces) did not display changes in hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) metabolism and [3H]5-HT reuptake, compared to water or butyric acid. Such an observation extended to isolated SD and Fischer 344 rats. When group-housed SD rats were tested 1 week after a 1-h exposure to TMT, hippocampal 5-HT metabolism, [3H]5-HT reuptake, and [3H]paroxetine binding at the 5-HT transporter remained unchanged. This study questions TMT as a specific predatory stimulus as both butyric acid and TMT increased plasma corticosterone levels whilst leaving intact open field behaviour (at least in group-housed SD rats).
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ABSTRACT: We aimed to quantify stress-induced hyperglycemia and differentiate the glucose response between normal animals and those with diabetes. We also examined the pattern in glucose fluctuation induced by stress according to type of diabetes. To load psychological stress on animal models, we used a predator stress model by exposing rats to a cat for 60 minutes and measured glucose level from the beginning to the end of the test to monitor glucose fluctuation. We induced type 1 diabetes model (T1D) for ten Sprague-Dawley rats using streptozotocin and used five Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats as obese type 2 diabetes model (OT2D) and 10 Goto-Kakizaki rats as nonobese type 2 diabetes model (NOT2D). We performed the stress loading test in both the normal and diabetic states and compared patterns of glucose fluctuation among the three models. We classified the pattern of glucose fluctuation into A, B, and C types according to speed of change in glucose level. Increase in glucose, total amount of hyperglycemic exposure, time of stress-induced hyperglycemia, and speed of glucose increase were significantly increased in all models compared to the normal state. While the early increase in glucose after exposure to stress was higher in T1D and NOT2D, it was slower in OT2D. The rate of speed of the decrease in glucose level was highest in NOT2D and lowest in OT2D. The diabetic state was more vulnerable to stress compared to the normal state in all models, and the pattern of glucose fluctuation differed among the three types of diabetes. The study provides basic evidence for stress-induced hyperglycemia patterns and characteristics used for the management of diabetes patients.Diabetes & metabolism journal 12/2013; 37(6):475-483.
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ABSTRACT: As global warming regulations are expected to become more stringent by the Kyoto Protocol, the steel industry, one of the representative industries in the view of greenhouse-gas emission and huge-energy consumption, has been strained to prepare for the new environmental protocol. Hereupon, low-carbon technologies for the iron reduction process draw much attention from both academia and industries. At sufficiently high temperature, it is reported that an arc plasma torch system has a higher reduction power compared to the conventional system which uses coke for iron reduction. In this paper, we have studied the arc plasma torch system for the iron production with low-carbon emission; hydrogen is added to the plasma-forming gas to realize the reduction atmosphere; a furnace, composed of a graphite crucible and a refractory wall, is designed to control the process conditions, such as temperature, pressure, and surrounding gas in a water-cooled chamber. The relations between the iron production and the carbon dioxide emission are investigated at various operating conditions of input power, gas flow rate and hydrogen mole fraction.Current Applied Physics - CURR APPL PHYS. 09/2011;
- European Neuropsychopharmacology - EUR NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOL. 01/2011; 21.