HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells; involvement of the Rho/Rho kinase pathway
ABSTRACT Little is known about the mechanism by which HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors affect inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. We investigated the effect of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor cerivastatin on iNOS expression in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Quiescent VSMCs were incubated with or without various concentrations of drugs as follows: cerivastatin, C3 exoenzyme or Y-27632. Then, pretreated VSMCs were stimulated by a vehicle or interleukin (IL)-1beta (10 ng/ml). Treatment of VSMCs with cerivastatin (10(-7)-10(-5) mol/l), which inhibits isoprenylation of Rho and other small G proteins, significantly increased nitrite/nitrate (NOx) production and upregulated the expression of iNOS mRNA in IL-1beta-stimulated VSMCs. This effect of cerivastatin was abolished by cotreatment with mevalonate (2x10(-4) mol/l) or geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate (GGPP) (10(-5) mol/l), but not by farnesyl-pyrophosphate (10(-5) mol/l). Furthermore, C3 exoenzyme (50 microg/ml), an inactivator of Rho protein, and Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (10(-5) mol/l) also enhanced NOx production and the expression of iNOS mRNA in IL-1beta-stimulated VSMCs. Immunocytochemical study revealed that cerivastatin, C3 exoenzyme and Y-27632 did not affect the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB in IL-1beta-stimulated VSMCs. Our study suggests that cerivastatin stimulates iNOS expression in IL-1beta treated VSMCs by its inhibitory effect on Rho/Rho kinase pathway. In addition, this effect of cerivastatin, by enhancing iNOS expression, may contribute to the prevention of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention and protect against atherothrombosis.
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ABSTRACT: Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that flavonoid intake as part of a balanced diet confers beneficial health effects in man, including improved cardiovascular function, reduced incidence of cancer and amelioration of symptoms associated with inflammatory disorders (Boots et al., 2008). A recent area of interest that may be fruitful is the study of anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids in combination with statins. Porcine coronary artery (PCA) segments were incubated overnight at 37°C in modified Krebs-Henseleit solution with or without 1µg mL -1 lipopolysaccharides (LPS), with either (0.1–10µM) quercetin, or 10µM quercetin 3′-suphate and 10µM quercetin-3-glucuronide, or with (0.01-10µM) epicatechins, 10µM catecchin and10µM epigallocatechin gallate. (0.03-3µM) simvastatins and 10µM pravastatin are also used in this study. In addition, since many quercetin-rich foods also contain significant amounts of myricetin, this flavonoid has also been examined.
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ABSTRACT: Mechanical stimulation of cartilage affects tissue homeostasis and chondrocyte function. The chondrocyte phenotype is dependent on cell shape, which is largely determined by the actin cytoskeleton. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton results from Rho GTPase activation. The purpose of this study was to examine the roles of both actin and Rho in mechanotransduction in chondrocytes. We embedded human articular chondrocytes in 2 x 6-mm agarose discs at 5 x 10(6) cells/ml and subjected the discs to unconfined dynamic compression at 0.5 Hz. By comparing samples with and without dynamic compression, we identified Rho activation according to the GTP-bound active RhoA measured in cell lysates. We identified rearrangements in filamentous actin structures using fluorescence-labeled phalloidin and confocal microscopy of fixed samples. We identified altered gene expression using TaqMan quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. We tested for a requirement for Rho signaling by performing the dynamic compression in the presence of Rho kinase inhibitors. RhoA activation occurred within 5-10 minutes of dynamic compression. Rho kinase-dependent actin reorganization occurred within 20 minutes after application of dynamic compression and was apparent as "punctate" F-actin structures that were visible under confocal microscopy. We identified early-phase mechanoresponsive genes (CCL20 and inducible nitric oxide synthase) that were highly up-regulated within 1 hour of dynamic compression in a Rho kinase-dependent and actin-dependent manner. Together, these results are the first demonstration that the Rho-Rho kinase pathway and actin cytoskeletal reorganization are required for changes in the expression of genes involved in human chondrocyte mechanotransduction.Arthritis & Rheumatology 09/2008; 58(9):2735-42. DOI:10.1002/art.23797 · 7.87 Impact Factor
Article: Antioxidant effects of statins[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Statins, a group of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, are widely used in clinical practice for their efficacy in producing significant reductions in plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and in reducing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. However, several large clinical trials have suggested that the cholesterol-lowering effects of statins may not completely account for the reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease seen in patients receiving statin therapy. A number of recent reports have shown that statins may also have important antiinflammatory effects, in addition to their effects on plasma lipids. Since inflammation is closely linked to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the molecular basis of the observed antiinflammatory effects of statins may relate to their ability block the production and/or activity of ROS. In this review, we will discuss both the inhibition of ROS generation by statins, through interference with NAD(P)H oxidase expression and activity, and the actions of statins that serve to blunt the damaging effects of these radicals, including effects on antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, LDL cholesterol oxidation and nitric oxide synthase. These antioxidant effects of statins likely contribute to their clinical efficacy in treating cardiovascular disease as well as other chronic conditions associated with increased oxidative stress in humans.Timely topics in medicine. Cardiovascular diseases 02/2005; 9(12):E1. DOI:10.1358/dot.2004.40.12.872573