HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells; involvement of the Rho/Rho kinase pathway.
ABSTRACT Little is known about the mechanism by which HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors affect inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. We investigated the effect of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor cerivastatin on iNOS expression in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Quiescent VSMCs were incubated with or without various concentrations of drugs as follows: cerivastatin, C3 exoenzyme or Y-27632. Then, pretreated VSMCs were stimulated by a vehicle or interleukin (IL)-1beta (10 ng/ml). Treatment of VSMCs with cerivastatin (10(-7)-10(-5) mol/l), which inhibits isoprenylation of Rho and other small G proteins, significantly increased nitrite/nitrate (NOx) production and upregulated the expression of iNOS mRNA in IL-1beta-stimulated VSMCs. This effect of cerivastatin was abolished by cotreatment with mevalonate (2x10(-4) mol/l) or geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate (GGPP) (10(-5) mol/l), but not by farnesyl-pyrophosphate (10(-5) mol/l). Furthermore, C3 exoenzyme (50 microg/ml), an inactivator of Rho protein, and Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (10(-5) mol/l) also enhanced NOx production and the expression of iNOS mRNA in IL-1beta-stimulated VSMCs. Immunocytochemical study revealed that cerivastatin, C3 exoenzyme and Y-27632 did not affect the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB in IL-1beta-stimulated VSMCs. Our study suggests that cerivastatin stimulates iNOS expression in IL-1beta treated VSMCs by its inhibitory effect on Rho/Rho kinase pathway. In addition, this effect of cerivastatin, by enhancing iNOS expression, may contribute to the prevention of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention and protect against atherothrombosis.
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ABSTRACT: Endothelial cells regulate vascular tone by secreting paracrine mediators that control the contractility of arterial smooth muscle cells. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important vasodilating agent that is generated from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is expressed constitutively by the endothelium. NO also inhibits platelet aggregation, contributing to the antithrombotic properties of the endothelial surface. It would therefore be expected that loss of the endothelium during arterial injury would lead to vasospasm and thrombosis but instead, the neointima formed after injury has a nonthrombogenic surface and a maintained vascular patency. We report here that arterial smooth muscle cells in the neointima formed after a deendothelializing balloon injury to the rat carotid artery express the cytokine-inducible isoform of NOS. Expression was detectable by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from day 1-14 after injury and in situ hybridization showed expression of NOS mRNA by neointimal smooth muscle cells, particularly at the surface of the lesion. This was associated with systemically detectable NO production as revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of nitrosylated red cell hemoglobin. Local NO production by intimal smooth muscle cells after endothelial injury could represent an important mechanism for the maintenance of arterial patency and nonthrombogenicity in the injured artery.Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/1994; 180(2):733-8. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have been shown to be effective in primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Their mechanism of action is attributed to their cholesterol lowering activity but recent results seem to indicate additional effects related to the modulation of other processes that regulate the presentation of vascular diseases. Our objective has been to study the effects of atorvastatin and simvastatin, two HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, on lesion composition and expression of genes involved in lesion development in a diet-induced atherosclerotic rabbit model. Both HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors were administered at identical doses of 2.5 mg/kg per day with the hyperlipemic diet for 10 weeks. Both statins significantly prevented the diet-induced increase in cholesterol levels. Relative lesion composition in fibrinogen, macrophages and smooth muscle cells was unaltered by the treatment although lesion size was reduced; therefore, both HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors reduced total amounts of fibrinogen, macrophages and smooth muscle cells (simvastatin, P < 0.05). NOS II gene expression was positively and significantly correlated with lesion size and inversely correlated with HDL plasma levels. NOS II expression was markedly downregulated in simvastatin treated animals while MCP-1 was unaltered. Therefore, HMG-CoA reductase inhibition seems to interfere with atherosclerotic lesion development by reducing intimal thickening development and the expression of the cytotoxic NOS II.Atherosclerosis 09/1999; 145(2):325-31. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 1. Formation of nitric oxide (NO) by the constitutive calcium-dependent NO synthase expressed in endothelial cells plays an important role in the control of local blood flow and vascular homeostasis. Expression of the inducible calcium-independent NO synthase (iNOS) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), on the other hand, is thought to play a potentially detrimental role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation or septic shock. In vascular injury, however, iNOS expression in VSMC may be beneficial as a compensatory mechanism for the lack of endothelial NO synthesis, e.g., by preventing restenosis following angioplasty or heart transplant vasculopathy. 2. Because iNOS activity does not seem to be controlled once the enzyme is expressed, regulation of NO release from iNOS-expressing cells predominantly occurs at the transcriptional and/or posttranscriptional level. 3. This review summarizes what is currently known about the regulation of expression of this enzyme in VSMC, details some of the transcription factors involved therein as well as their mode of activation, and highlights some pharmacological strategies based on these findings that may be employed for the control of iNOS expression in VSMC in the clinical arena.General Pharmacology 02/1999; 32(1):9-16.