Genetic determinants of coxsackievirus B3 pathogenesis.
ABSTRACT The development of high throughput genomic and bioinformatic analysis tools, coupled with established molecular techniques, has allowed new insights into the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. In humans, coxasackievirus B3 (CVB3) is the primary etiological agent of viral myocarditis, an inflammatory disease process involving the heart muscle. Early host cellular survival and apoptotic mechanisms during viral infections, as well as immune events, affect myocarditis progression and outcome. Therefore, our laboratory has been keenly interested in infectomics, defined here as the transcriptional events of both virus and host. We first elucidated up- or downregulated transcriptional activities in CVB3-infected hearts by mRNA differential display. Further characterization of these regulated genes including Nip21, IP10, and IGTPase, and study of their role in CVB3-infection are underway. In further dissection of the stages of myocarditis-peak viremia, inflammatory infiltration and tissue repair-we used cDNA microarrays to probe differential gene expression in the myocardium following virus infection. Following virus infection, there are global decreases in metabolic and mitochondrial genes, increases in signaling genes and distinctive patterns in other functional groups. To establish early gene expression profiles in infected cells by themselves, we also used oligonucleotide arrays in an in vitro model of CVB3 infection. Notably, we have found increased expression of transcription factors c-fos and c-jun down-stream of extracellular signal-related kinase, a pathway which is crucial for virus replication and pathogenesis. Our investigations based on gene profiling following CVB3 infection have thus far been fruitful in providing new experimental leads. High throughput genetic analysis has allowed us to simultaneously try on greater than 12,000 potential genetic "glass slippers." Our in vitro experimental plan has enabled us to chart prominent patterns of gene expression, analyzed by novel bioinformatic approaches, and to separate varied and potentially significant gene expression events.
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ABSTRACT: Viral infections of host cells cause multiple changes of cellular metabolism including immediate defense mechanisms as well as processes to support viral replication. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is a member of the Picornavirus family and is responsible for a wide variety of mild or severe infections including acute and chronic inflammations. Thereby, intracellular signaling can be changed very comprehensively. In order to compare the influence of CVB3 replication on gene expression pattern of two different cell lines, DNA microarray systems were used to study a set of 780 genes related to inflammation. Expression analysis of HeLa cells and HepG2 cells infected with CVB3 identified 34 genes whose mRNA levels were altered significantly upon infection. The expression of additional 16 genes in HepG2 cells and 31 genes in HeLa cells were found to be influenced during CVB3 replication as well. All genes expressed differentially were sorted with regard to their functions and interpreted in view of known contributors to the infection process. The activation of the tumor necrosis factor pathways by CVB3 represents one peculiar observation, including apoptosis, stress, and inflammation responses.Journal of virological methods 01/2012; 187(1):190-4. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The expression of a disease-relevant protein is controlled by a transcriptional program specifically regulated at all stages of normal development and during the adult life. Thus, regulation of gene expression as an approach to drug discovery is conceptually appealing because it provides a rational basis for molecular strategies aimed at modulating gene expression in given cell types and/or at a given time. Indeed, numerous pharmacologic agents have been identified that can either restore or suppress disease-relevant protein expression. In this review, the author critically examines new strategies and methodologies that are being used and developed to identify and validate new therapeutic targets by taking advantage of our knowledge on mechanisms regulating their expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The author also examines the impact of genome-wide approaches and methods aimed at controlling epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation and concludes by extrapolating on future trends.Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery 07/2007; 2(7):987-1000. · 3.47 Impact Factor