Design and synthesis of orally bioavailable inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase. synthesis and biological evaluation of dihydropyridin-2(1H)-imines and 1,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-azepin-2-imines.
ABSTRACT The process of discovery and biological evaluation of alpha,beta-unsaturated cyclic amidines, as selective inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), is reported. Dihydropyridin-2(1H)-imines and 1,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-azepin-2-imines were synthesized and biologically evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a nitric oxide synthase inhibition assay. Compounds 1, 5, 6, 8-12 and 16 exhibited potent inhibition of iNOS. Among these, compounds 6, 7, 10, 11 and 16 showed 5- to 19-fold isoform selectivity. Compounds 1, 6, 10, 11 and 16 also showed potent inhibitory activity in the NOx accumulation assay in mice. Compounds 1 and 6 showed excellent bioavailability (BA) in rats when administered orally. Full details are presented here, including the structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, the chemistry of these compounds, and the pharmacokinetic data and the computer-aided docking study of 10 with hiNOS.