Article

Engineering a bioactive matrix by modifications of calcium sulfate

Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14214, USA.
Tissue Engineering (Impact Factor: 4.25). 12/2002; 8(6):997-1008. DOI: 10.1089/107632702320934092
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The goal of this study was to define the conditions for the fabrication of a bioactive matrix that induces and supports cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. The proposed hypothesis was that a composite graft could be engineered by the absorption of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) onto calcium sulfate (CS). Evaluation of the biological activity of the engineered grafts was based on osteoblast proliferation studies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Graft samples were created in a standard size and shape so that the surface available for attachment and cell proliferation was always identical. Proliferation data were expressed as counts per minute per group and differences among groups were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance followed by the Scheffé test (alpha = 0.1). SEM analysis showed that the combination of CS and PRP presents a preserved crystalline structure well integrated by organic matrix. This combination showed the highest cell proliferation levels (p < 0.001). Further evaluations demonstrated that PRP is activated when combined with CS. When tested as a possible carrier for biologically active molecules such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), CS showed increased cell proliferation (p < 0.001). SEM revealed adherent osteoblasts with broad flattened edges on CS-PRP. This study proposes CS as an efficient carrier for PRP or PDGF and supports the use of these combinations as bioactive matrices in clinical or laboratory applications.

0 Followers
 · 
87 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this investigation is to evaluate clinical and histologic outcome of using medical-grade calcium sulfate hemihydrate (MGCSH) mixed with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for extraction socket preservation graft before implant placement. This study is a single-site, randomized and controlled investigation. Sixteen patients with a non-restorable tooth requiring extraction followed by implant placement were enrolled in this study. After extraction of a tooth, eight selected patients randomly received MGCSH mixed with PRP in the extraction sockets (test group), and eight selected patients randomly received collagen resorbable plug dressing material (control group). At the time of extraction and 3 months later (at implant placement surgery), vertical and horizontal socket dimensions were measured. Bone core samples were retrieved from the center of the healed socket before implant placement for histomorphometric analysis. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups based on histomorphometric analysis (P <0.05). New vital bone percentage regenerated after 3 months of healing was 66.5% ± 10.4% in sockets grafted with MGCSH mixed with PRP compared to 38.3% ± 9.3% collagen resorbable plug. There was no statistically significant difference in the amount of vertical and horizontal bone resorption (P >0.05) between groups. In all cases but two in the control group, implants were placed with primary stability. MGCSH mixed with PRP showed greater vital bone volume at 3 months with rapid enhancement of bone healing compared to PRP-free collagen resorbable graft.
    Journal of Periodontology 08/2011; 83(4):401-9. DOI:10.1902/jop.2011.110237 · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles of calcium sulfate (nCS) have potential advantages as a ceramic matrix, scaffold and/or vehicle for delivering growth factors for osseous regeneration in a variety of clinical situations. The objectives of this study were to synthesize and characterize nanoparticles of hemihydrate calcium sulfate (nCS) and to develop a nCS-based system for bone regeneration. A cryo-vacuum method was used to process dihydrate CS into dihydrate nCS, which was then subjected to oven drying to produce hemihydrate. The nCS was sterilized by glow discharge treatment for use as a synthetic graft material for the treatment of bone defects. Electron microscopy showed that the nCS powder consisted of aggregates of closely arranged acicular crystals, approximately 30-80 nm in width, 400-600 nm in length and approximately 80-100 nm in diameter, providing a surface area about ten times that of conventional CS. Thorough physico-chemical characterization confirmed the composition and phase of the material. Cell viability/metabolic activity assays and alkaline phosphate assays confirmed the safety and biocompatibility of nCS. Release kinetics for adsorbed platelet-derived growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) suggests that nCS may serve as an appropriate vehicle for slow release delivery of these agents. The studies presented here give evidence of the advantages of nCS as a scaffold to support osteoblastic cell activity.
    Biomedical Materials 08/2011; 6(5):055007. DOI:10.1088/1748-6041/6/5/055007 · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To assess dimensional changes and histologic/histomorphometric aspects of grafted sockets using either calcium sulfate-platelet-rich plasma (CS-PRP) or CS alone in socket preservation procedure. Study Design: Twelve subjects with single nonmolar teeth underwent atraumatic extraction. Six sockets received CS grafts and 6 sockets received CS-PRP grafts. Cone-beam computerized tomography scans taken immediately after extraction and 4 months after surgery were used to measure vertical and horizontal dimensional changes. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses of grafted sites were performed at 4 months after surgery. Intergroup changes were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: CS group demonstrated 18.6% horizontal resorption as compared with 9.2% in CS-PRP group. Resorption for buccal height (BH) (14%) and palatal/lingual height (PH) (13.7%) in CS group was nearly 3 times more than resorption in BH (5%) and PH (4.6%) for CS-PRP group. Mineralized bone component in CS-PRP group (11.19% +/- 6.59%) was significantly more than CS group (1.51% +/- 2.86%) (P = 0.01). Conclusion: CS-PRP-grafted sites demonstrated higher mineralized bone content than CS-grafted sites.
    Implant Dentistry 09/2014; 23(5). DOI:10.1097/ID.0000000000000148 · 1.11 Impact Factor