Understanding the association between socioeconomic status and physical health: Do negative emotions play a role?

Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, California 92120, USA.
Psychological Bulletin (Impact Factor: 14.39). 02/2003; 129(1):10-51. DOI: 10.1037//0033-2909.129.1.10
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this article, the authors evaluate the possible roles of negative emotions and cognitions in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health, focusing on the outcomes of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. After reviewing the limited direct evidence, the authors examine indirect evidence showing that (a) SES relates to the targeted health outcomes, (b) SES relates to negative emotions and cognitions, and (c) negative emotions and cognitions relate to the targeted health outcomes. The authors present a general framework for understanding the roles of cognitive-emotional factors, suggesting that low-SES environments are stressful and reduce individuals' reserve capacity to manage stress, thereby increasing vulnerability to negative emotions and cognitions. The article concludes with suggestions for future research to better evaluate the proposed model.

Download full-text


Available from: Linda C Gallo, Jul 29, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined whether race/ethnicity and family income level moderated associations between children's affective social competence and teacher–child relationships among 132 Black, White, and Latino preschoolers. Boys and girls were equally represented in the sample. Of the three racial/ethnic groups, Latino children scored lowest on emotion regulation, were less close to their teachers, and experienced more teacher–child conflict and dependence. In contrast, Black children had closer, less conflict-laden, and less dependent teacher–child relationships than children of other racial/ethnic backgrounds. Emotion regulation served as a protective factor against problematic teacher–child relationships, particularly for Latino and Black children compared with high-income White children. Emotion regulation was positively associated with teacher–child closeness for Black children. However, it was negatively associated with teacher–child conflict for Latino children, regardless of income. For all outcomes, teacher characteristics accounted highly for the differences in teacher–child relational quality. Findings are discussed in terms of the functional role of emotions for teacher–child relationships and suggest important contextual influences on the associations.
    Review of Social Development 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/sode.12114 · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The economic conditions of one's life can profoundly and systematically influence health outcomes over the life course. Our present research demonstrates that rejecting the notion that social class categories are biologically determined-a nonessentialist belief-buffers lower-class individuals from poor self-rated health and negative affect, whereas conceiving of social class categories as rooted in biology-an essentialist belief-does not. In Study 1, lower-class individuals self-reported poorer health than upper-class individuals when they endorsed essentialist beliefs but showed no such difference when they rejected such beliefs. Exposure to essentialist theories of social class also led lower-class individuals to report greater feelings of negative self-conscious emotions (Studies 2 and 3), and perceive poorer health (Study 3) than upper-class individuals, whereas exposure to nonessentialist theories did not lead to such differences. Discussion considers how lay theories of social class potentially shape long-term trajectories of health and affect of lower-class individuals. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
    Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 01/2015; 41(3). DOI:10.1177/0146167215569705 · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background There has been growing interest in the relation between anxiety disorders and physical conditions in the general adult population. However, little is known about the nature of this association in older adults. Understanding the complex relationship between these disorders can help to inform prevention and treatment strategies unique to this rapidly growing segment of the population. Methods A total of 10,409 U.S. adults aged 55 + participated in Wave 1 (2001–2002) and Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Lifetime and past-year DSM-IV anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders, and lifetime personality disorders, were assessed in both waves. Participants self-reported on whether they had been diagnosed by a healthcare professional with a broad range of physical health conditions; this study focuses on cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, and arthritis. Multivariable logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographics, comorbid mental disorders, and number of physical health conditions assessed: (1) the relation between past-year physical conditions at Wave 1 and incident past-year anxiety disorders at Wave 2 and; (2) the relation between individual lifetime anxiety disorders at Wave 1 and incident physical conditions at Wave 2. A second set of adjusted multinomial logistic regressions examined Wave 1 sociodemographic and physical and mental health risk factors associated with incident physical condition alone, anxiety disorder alone, and comorbid anxiety and physical condition at Wave 2. Results Past-year arthritis at Wave 1 was significantly associated with increased odds of incident generalized anxiety disorder at Wave 2. Further, any lifetime anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder at Wave 1 were significantly associated with increased odds of incident gastrointestinal disease at Wave 2. Differential sociodemographic and physical and mental health predictors were significantly associated with increased odds of incident comorbid anxiety disorder and physical conditions. Conclusion Results of the current study elucidate the longitudinal bidirectional relationships between anxiety disorders and physical health conditions in a large, nationally representative sample of older adults. These results have important implications for identifying at risk older adults, which will not only impact this growing segment of the population directly, but will also potentially lessen burden on the healthcare system as a whole.
    Experimental Gerontology 09/2014; 60. DOI:10.1016/j.exger.2014.09.012 · 3.53 Impact Factor