Gallo LC, Matthews KA. Understanding, the Association between Socioeconomic Status and Physical Health: Do Negative Emotions Play a Role? Psychol Bull 129: 10-51

Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, California 92120, USA.
Psychological Bulletin (Impact Factor: 14.76). 02/2003; 129(1):10-51. DOI: 10.1037//0033-2909.129.1.10
Source: PubMed


In this article, the authors evaluate the possible roles of negative emotions and cognitions in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health, focusing on the outcomes of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality. After reviewing the limited direct evidence, the authors examine indirect evidence showing that (a) SES relates to the targeted health outcomes, (b) SES relates to negative emotions and cognitions, and (c) negative emotions and cognitions relate to the targeted health outcomes. The authors present a general framework for understanding the roles of cognitive-emotional factors, suggesting that low-SES environments are stressful and reduce individuals' reserve capacity to manage stress, thereby increasing vulnerability to negative emotions and cognitions. The article concludes with suggestions for future research to better evaluate the proposed model.

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Available from: Linda C Gallo, Jul 29, 2014
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    • "Thus, from such a scenario, it is not difficult to establish how poverty may lead guardians to technically withdraw matters from court once the offender offer material things or promise marriage. Gallo and Matthews (2003) argues that though domestic violence occurs in all socioeconomic groups, there are close correlations between poverty and domestic violence. Thus, poverty directly or indirectly affects CSA. "
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    ABSTRACT: Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) is a worldwide phenomenon which has evolved from a matter of family to public concern. Numerous researches have demonstrated tremendous after-effects inclusive but not limited to psychological and physical. The international community, Zambia included battles to combat this ravaging scourge. Prosecution of offenders has re-emerged as a measure to stop Child Sexual Abuse. This study examined factors responsible for low conviction of offenders of Child Sexual Abuse in the face of substantial evidence. Survey design using qualitative methods: a questionnaire, semi structured interview and participant observation methods were used to conduct the study. The results showed: absence of technical knowledge of child psychology in courtrooms, an adversarial court system, official's lack of skills and training, under-staffing and poverty, contribute to the failure to convict offenders.
    • "Ethnicity & Health 3 physiological responses and in turn may adversely affect health (Chae et al. 2012; Clark et al. 1999; Cohen, Kessler, and Gordon 1995; Gallo and Matthews 2003; McClure et al. 2010). If this is the case, then the effect of perceived discrimination on physical health should be mediated by its effect on mental health (Hypothesis 5). "
    Das Gesundheitswesen 09/2015; 77(08/09). DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1562977 · 0.62 Impact Factor
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    • "Human emotions are helpful to direct attention to key experiences in our life, convey specific affective cues in social situations, and enhance specific memories [8]. These emotions can be positive or negative, and include all affective, behavioral, and cognitive mechanisms; in addition to physiological changes that prepare the person for possible actions [7]. Negative emotional symptoms are thoughts and feelings that normally present in response to hard life events. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Balanced emotions are essential for wellbeing. Having a relative admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) associated with negative emotional symptoms, and the severity of such symptoms is associated with patients' health status, patients and relatives' characteristics as well. Purposes: To assess the level of depression, anxiety and stress, as well as to identify the predictors of negative emotional symptoms among relatives of Jordanian ICU patients. Methods: Descriptive correlation design was used, and 140 first degree relatives were recruited through convenience sampling. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale was used to collect data about relatives' negative emotional symptoms. Standard multiple regression was conducted to determine the extent to which variance in depression, anxiety and stress could be explained by patients' health status, patients' sociodemographics, and relatives' sociodemographics. Results: Approximately, 56%, 70%, and 76% of relatives are suffering from depression, anxiety and stress respectively. Relatives have been found suffering from mild depression plus moderate anxiety and stress. Patients' Glasgow Coma Scores is the most significant predictor for relatives' stress level. Patients' age and insurance are predictors of relatives' depression, anxiety and stress. Whereas, relatives' gender and age; are the most significant predictors for their negative emotional symptoms. Conclusions: Interestingly, variances in relatives' negative emotional symptoms were explained by patients' sociodemographics and relatives' sociodemographics, more than patients' health status. Therefore, patients' and 22 relatives' sociodemographics should be considered in dealing with relatives' psychological status.This will help nurses to minimize the devastating impact of the negative emotional symptoms on relatives of ICU patients.
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