A severely calcified coronary artery demands a special technique in coronary artery bypass surgery. We have successfully developed a "punch-out" technique for a calcified right coronary artery in a dialysis patient. After an incision into the target coronary artery, the calcified arterial wall was resected using a punch to make an oval hole for anastomosis. Limited endarterectomy, which consisted of dissection and removal of the calcified endothelium and media around this hole, preserving the adventitia, enabled the anastomosis. This technique can be used for a severely calcified coronary artery that is unamendable to conventional coronary artery bypass grafting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is common in older adults with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing regular dialysis, but little is known about the prevalence and extent of cardiovascular disease in children and young adults with end-stage renal disease.
We used electron-beam computed tomography (CT) to screen for coronary-artery calcification in 39 young patients with end-stage renal disease who were undergoing dialysis (mean [+/-SD] age, 19+/-7 years; range, 7 to 30) and 60 normal subjects 20 to 30 years of age. In those with evidence of calcification on CT scanning, we determined its extent. The results were correlated with the patients' clinical characteristics, serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations, and other biochemical variables.
None of the 23 patients who were younger than 20 years of age had evidence of coronary-artery calcification, but it was present in 14 of the 16 patients who were 20 to 30 years old. Among those with calcification, the mean calcification score was 1157+/-1996, and the median score was 297. By contrast, only 3 of the 60 normal subjects had calcification. As compared with the patients without coronary-artery calcification, those with calcification were older (26+/-3 vs. 15+/-5 years, P<0.001) and had been undergoing dialysis for a longer period (14+/-5 vs. 4+/-4 years, P< 0.001). The mean serum phosphorus concentration, the mean calcium-phosphorus ion product in serum, and the daily intake of calcium were higher among the patients with coronary-artery calcification. Among 10 patients with calcification who underwent follow-up CT scanning, the calcification score nearly doubled (from 125+/-104 to 249+/-216, P=0.02) over a mean period of 20+/-3 months.
Coronary-artery calcification is common and progressive in young adults with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing dialysis.
New England Journal of Medicine 05/2000; 342(20):1478-83. DOI:10.1056/NEJM200005183422003 · 55.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty-three chronic renal dialysis patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Eighteen patients were maintained on hemodialysis and 5 patients received continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Eighteen patients (78%) had triple vessel disease or left main disease. The mean number of revascularized vessels was 2.2 +/- 0.8, and the graft materials used were left internal thoracic artery (21), right internal thoracic artery (7), right gastroepiploic artery (7), and saphenous vein (15). The utilization index of arterial grafts (percentage of patients with at least one arterial graft) was 95.7%. Intraoperative hemodialysis (HD) was performed during cardiopulmonary bypass in all patients. In 17 patients on HD preoperatively, peritoneal dialysis (PD) was initiated immediately after the operation, and maintained until the hemodynamics stabilized sufficiently to resume HD (mean: 5.7 +/- 3.4 days after operation). In the patients with a gastroepiploic artery pedicle, PD could be established without leakage of dialysis fluid into the pericardial cavity by means of making a smaller hole in the diaphragm, passing the skeletonized portion of the graft through the hole and sealing the hole using fibrin glue. There were no hospital deaths. Angiography revealed an overall graft patency rate of 95.8% (46/48), and all arterial grafts were patent. There were 4 late deaths (1 cardiac, 3 cerebral hemorrhage). In conclusion, CABG can be accomplished in chronic renal dialysis patients with excellent early and long-term results through an intensive perioperative dialysis program and extensive usage of arterial grafts.
European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 02/1994; 8(9):505-7. DOI:10.1016/1010-7940(94)90023-X · 3.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little is known about the impact of renal failure on atherosclerotic changes in the internal thoracic artery (ITA).
A total of 20 consecutive patients on chronic dialysis who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) during April 1998 through September 1999 were investigated. The 20 control patients were selected from the same interval to rigorously match risk factors. Atherosclerosis of the ITA collected from each patient was analyzed using the subjective evaluation proposed by Kay and colleagues.
There were no cases of greater than 25% atherosclerotic luminal narrowing among a total of 35 ITA specimens from dialysis patients. The degree of atherosclerosis was not significantly different from that of the specimens from matched patients (p = 0.18). No calcification was found in ITA grafts either microscopically or macroscopically. The number of elastic lamellae, an index of the elasticity of the ITA graft, was not significantly different from those obtained from the matched patients. Analysis of preoperative coronary angiography revealed that coronary calcification was significantly more frequent in dialysis patients (15 patients, 75%) than in matched patients (p < 0.05). By analysis of postoperative angiography in dialysis patients, no evidence of atherosclerotic changes was found in 28 opacified ITAs. In addition, despite the presence of calcification in the native coronary, no calcification was evident along the entire length of the ITAs.
This study revealed the minimal impact of chronic renal failure on atherosclerotic changes in the ITA. The results of this study support the continued use of ITA grafting in dialysis patients.
The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 02/2001; 71(1):148-51. DOI:10.1016/S0003-4975(00)01700-8 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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