Drug-scene roles and HIV risk among Puerto Rican injection drug users in East Harlem, New York and Bayamón, Puerto Rico.
ABSTRACT This article describes and compares distributions of drug-scene roles, frequency of engaging in role behaviors, and relationships of role-holding to high-risk behaviors and sexual partnerships among Puerto Rican injection drug users in New York and Puerto Rico. For this study 561 street-recruited injection drug users in East Harlem, New York, and 312 in Bayamón, Puerto Rico were asked the number of days (in the last 30) in which they earned money or drugs in each of seven drug-scene roles; and about behaviors and egocentric risk partner characteristics in the last 30 days. East Harlem subjects were more likely to get resources by selling drugs and syringes, and buying drugs for someone else; Bayamón subjects were more likely to be "hit doctors," buy needles for others, operate a shooting gallery, or escort others to shooting galleries. All roles were part-time except shooting gallery management in East Harlem. About 27% of respondents at each site engaged in two or more roles. Many roles were associated with increased odds of injecting more than twice a day, receptive syringe sharing, distributive syringe sharing, receptive paraphernalia sharing, and having a drug-injecting sex partner. Drug-scene role structures vary between cities. Most roles are part-time pursuits. Role-holders have higher-risk behaviors and sexual partnerships than other drug injectors. Although further research is needed, drug-scene role-holders should be targeted for interventions to affect their own risk and their communications with others.
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ABSTRACT: Injecting drug use (IDU) remains an actual risk variable in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in most ethnic populations, and the association between actual risk and individual perception of HIV risk varies across studies and samples. This study aimed to examine the relationship between IDU and HIV risk perception among Mexican Americans residing in Rio Grande Valley, South Texas. A cross-sectional study of IDU as a predictor of HIV risk perception. Two hundred and seventy-five participants [IDUs 11.9%, non-IDUs 88.1%] were assessed for an association between IDU and individual risk perception for HIV infection, as well as history of drug use and HIV risk perception, using Chi-squared statistic for independence and a logistic regression model for the prevalence odds ratio (POR). There was no statistically significant difference between IDUs and non-IDUs with respect to the sociodemographic variables, except for income and gender (P<0.05). The results indicated a statistically significant decrease in HIV risk perception among IDUs compared with non-IDUs, after adjustment for age, gender, sexual preference, history of drug use and marital status [POR 0.26, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.11-0.65]. Likewise, history of drug use was associated with decreased HIV risk perception (POR 0.44, 95% CI 0.22-0.98). These results suggest an inverse correlation between actual risk of HIV infection, such as IDU, and HIV risk perception. Therefore, assessment of HIV risk perception, which is a significant determinant of behaviour change, is essential to reduce the prevalence of HIV infection in the targeted population.Public Health 04/2008; 122(4):397-403. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Assisted injection among injection drug users (IDUs) remains understudied. We recruited 1,056 IDUs using respondent-driven sampling in Tijuana, Mexico. Participants underwent HIV and syphilis testing and structured interviews. One-quarter (25%) sought injection assistance in the past 6 months. Seeking injection assistance was independently associated with being female (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]= 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]= 1.73-3.90), being born outside Baja California (AOR = 1.75; CI = 1.26-2.42), having recent abscesses (AOR = 2.59; CI = 1.93-3.47), using syringes previously used by others in the past 6 months (AOR = 1.99; CI = 1.45-2.71), and ever being arrested for carrying sterile syringes (AOR = 1.55; CI = 1.15-2.09).American Journal on Addictions 01/2010; 19(4):357-63. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A large body of research has highlighted practices and rituals that characterise injecting drug use and behavioural and environmental risks that can contribute to the transmission of blood-borne viruses. Compared with other injecting practices, considerably less is known about peer injecting, i.e. receiving or giving injections, particularly the social context in which it occurs. In this article, we explore peer injecting and injecting order at initiation into injecting drug user (IDU) and during subsequent injection episodes. Using data from semi-structured interviews, we highlight the experiences of 41 males and females who had received injections from other IDUs. Respondents were recruited through various strategies, largely chain referral. The results suggest gendered similarities as well as differences in terms of peer injecting, the order of injection and micro-risk contexts for blood-borne viruses.Journal of Substance Use 01/2013; 18(1):31-45. · 0.48 Impact Factor