Development of proteinuria or elevated serum creatinine and mortality in HIV-infected women.
ABSTRACT Data on the incidence and prognostic significance of renal dysfunction in HIV disease are limited.
To determine the incidence of proteinuria and elevated serum creatinine in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women and to determine whether these abnormalities are predictors of mortality or associated with causes of death listed on the death certificate in HIV-positive women.
The incidence of proteinuria or elevated serum creatinine and mortality was assessed in a cohort of 885 HIV-positive women and 425 at-risk HIV-negative women.
Women from the general community or HIV care clinics in four urban locations in the United States.
Creatinine of >or=1.4 mg/dL, proteinuria 2 or more, or both. Deaths confirmed by a death certificate (92%) or medical record/community report (8%).
At baseline, 64 (7.2%) HIV-positive women and 10 (2.4%) HIV-negative women had proteinuria or elevated creatinine. An additional 128 (14%) HIV-positive women and 18 (4%) HIV-negative women developed these abnormalities over the next (mean) 21 months. Relative hazards of mortality were significantly increased (adjusted relative hazard = 2.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.9-3.3), and there were more renal causes recorded on death certificates (24/92 (26%) vs. 3/127 (2.7%), p<.0001) in HIV-infected women with, compared with those without these renal abnormalities.
Proteinuria, elevated serum creatinine, or both frequently occurred in these HIV-infected women. These renal abnormalities in HIV-infected women are associated with an increased risk of death after controlling for other risk factors and with an increased likelihood of having renal causes listed on the death certificate. The recognition and management of proteinuria and elevated serum creatinine should be a priority for HIV-infected persons.
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ABSTRACT: Renal disease is a well-recognized complication among patients with HIV infection. Viral infection itself and the use of some antiretroviral drugs contribute to this condition. The thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH) is the tubule segment where free water clearance is generated, determining along with glomerular filtration rate the kidney's ability to dilute urine. Objective. We analyzed the function of the proximal tubule and TALH in patients with HIV infection receiving or not tenofovir-containing antiretroviral treatment in comparison with healthy seronegative controls, by applying a tubular physiological test, hyposaline infusion test (Chaimowitz' test). Material & Methods. Chaimowitz' test was performed on 20 HIV positive volunteers who had normal renal functional parameters. The control group included 10 healthy volunteers. Results. After the test, both HIV groups had a significant reduction of serum sodium and osmolarity compared with the control group. Free water clearance was lower and urine osmolarity was higher in both HIV+ groups. Proximal tubular function was normal in both studied groups. Conclusion. The present study documented that proximal tubule sodium reabsorption was preserved while free water clearance and maximal urine dilution capability were reduced in stable HIV patients treated or not with tenofovir.International journal of nephrology. 01/2014; 2014:381985.
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ABSTRACT: In HIV-infected women, urine concentrations of novel tubulointerstitial injury markers, interleukin-18 (IL-18) and kidney injury marker-1 (KIM-1) are associated with kidney function decline and all-cause mortality. We hypothesized that HIV-infected individuals with preserved kidney filtration function would have more extensive kidney injury, as determined by urine injury markers, compared to the uninfected controls, and that risk factors for tubulointerstitial injury would differ from risk factors for albuminuria. In this cross-sectional study, we compared urine concentrations of IL-18, KIM-1, and ACR in 908 HIV-infected and 289 HIV-uninfected women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, utilizing stored urine specimens from visits between 1999 and 2000. After multivariate-adjusted linear regression analysis, mean urine concentrations were higher in HIV-infected individuals by 38% for IL-18 (p<0.0001), 12% for KIM-1 (p=0.081), and 47% for ACR (p<0.0001). Higher HIV RNA level (15% per 10-fold increase, p<0.0001), lower CD4 count (8% per doubling, p=0.0025), HCV infection (30%, p=0.00018), and lower HDL (5% per 10 mg/dL, p=0.0024) were each associated with higher IL-18 concentrations. In contrast, hypertension (81%, p<0.0001) and diabetes (47%, p=0.018) were among the strongest predictors of higher ACR, though HIV RNA level (15% per 10-fold increase, p=0.0004) was also associated with higher ACR. HIV-infected women had more extensive tubulointerstitial and glomerular injury than uninfected women, but the associated factors differed among the urine biomarkers. Combinations of urinary biomarkers should be investigated to further characterize early kidney injury in HIV-infected women.Antiviral therapy 08/2013; · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With the introduction of combined active antiretroviral therapy and the improved survival of HIV-infected patients, degenerative diseases and drug toxicity have emerged as long-term concerns. We studied the prevalence of decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and associated risk factors in a cohort of HIV-infected patients from a middle-income country. Our cross-sectional study included all adult patients who attended an urban outpatient clinic in 2008. GFR was estimated using the CKD-EPI equation. The prevalence ratio (PR) of decreased GFR (defined as <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) was estimated using generalizing linear models assuming a Poisson distribution. We analyzed data from 1,970 patients, of which 82.9% had been exposed to ART. A total of 249 patients (12.6%) had a GFR between 60 and 89 mL/min/1.73 m2, 3.1% had a GFR between 30 and 59, 0.3% had a GFR between 15 and 29, and 0.4% had a GFR <15. Decreased GFR was found in only 74 patients (3.8%). In the multivariate regression model, the factors that were independently associated with a GFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were as follows: age ≥50 years (PR = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-6.8), diabetes (PR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.4), hypertension (PR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.3-3.2), current CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3 (PR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3-3.3), past exposure to tenofovir (PR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.3-9.4) and past exposure to indinavir (PR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0-2.8). As in high-income countries, CKD was the predominant form of kidney involvement among HIV-infected individuals in our setting. The risk factors associated with decreased glomerular filtration were broad and included virus-related factors as well as degenerative and nephrotoxic factors. Despite the potential for nephrotoxicity associated with some antiretroviral drugs, in the short-term, advanced chronic renal disease remains very rare.PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e93748. · 3.53 Impact Factor