Development of proteinuria or elevated serum creatinine and mortality in HIV-infected women.
ABSTRACT Data on the incidence and prognostic significance of renal dysfunction in HIV disease are limited.
To determine the incidence of proteinuria and elevated serum creatinine in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women and to determine whether these abnormalities are predictors of mortality or associated with causes of death listed on the death certificate in HIV-positive women.
The incidence of proteinuria or elevated serum creatinine and mortality was assessed in a cohort of 885 HIV-positive women and 425 at-risk HIV-negative women.
Women from the general community or HIV care clinics in four urban locations in the United States.
Creatinine of >or=1.4 mg/dL, proteinuria 2 or more, or both. Deaths confirmed by a death certificate (92%) or medical record/community report (8%).
At baseline, 64 (7.2%) HIV-positive women and 10 (2.4%) HIV-negative women had proteinuria or elevated creatinine. An additional 128 (14%) HIV-positive women and 18 (4%) HIV-negative women developed these abnormalities over the next (mean) 21 months. Relative hazards of mortality were significantly increased (adjusted relative hazard = 2.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.9-3.3), and there were more renal causes recorded on death certificates (24/92 (26%) vs. 3/127 (2.7%), p<.0001) in HIV-infected women with, compared with those without these renal abnormalities.
Proteinuria, elevated serum creatinine, or both frequently occurred in these HIV-infected women. These renal abnormalities in HIV-infected women are associated with an increased risk of death after controlling for other risk factors and with an increased likelihood of having renal causes listed on the death certificate. The recognition and management of proteinuria and elevated serum creatinine should be a priority for HIV-infected persons.
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ABSTRACT: Renal disease is a well-recognized complication among patients with HIV infection. Viral infection itself and the use of some antiretroviral drugs contribute to this condition. The thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH) is the tubule segment where free water clearance is generated, determining along with glomerular filtration rate the kidney's ability to dilute urine. Objective. We analyzed the function of the proximal tubule and TALH in patients with HIV infection receiving or not tenofovir-containing antiretroviral treatment in comparison with healthy seronegative controls, by applying a tubular physiological test, hyposaline infusion test (Chaimowitz' test). Material & Methods. Chaimowitz' test was performed on 20 HIV positive volunteers who had normal renal functional parameters. The control group included 10 healthy volunteers. Results. After the test, both HIV groups had a significant reduction of serum sodium and osmolarity compared with the control group. Free water clearance was lower and urine osmolarity was higher in both HIV+ groups. Proximal tubular function was normal in both studied groups. Conclusion. The present study documented that proximal tubule sodium reabsorption was preserved while free water clearance and maximal urine dilution capability were reduced in stable HIV patients treated or not with tenofovir.01/2014; 2014:381985. DOI:10.1155/2014/381985
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Proximal renal tubular dysfunction (PRTD) of varying severity has been associated with antiretroviral toxicity, especially related to the use of tenofovir (TDF). The aim of this study was to investigate whether HIV-infected patients who use a tenofovir-based regimen are at increased risk of tubular dysfunction. We conducted an observational, comparative, longitudinal, prospective study. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and markers of tubular damage to assess tubular dysfunction (fractional excretion of phosphate and uric acid, glycosuria, and proteinuria) were measured at baseline and at weeks 12 and 24. Of 111 participants, PRTD was found in 6.3% at week 12 and 9% at week 24, with no statistically significant difference between those on an abacavir (ABC)-containing regimen or a TDF-containing regimen. We also found an increase in triglycerides associated with the ABC-containing regimen compared with the TDF group. The use of an ABC- or TDF-containing regimen was independently associated with tubular dysfunction, but we found no significant differences between these groups, except when TDF was combined with a protease inhibitor. A better and more complete assessment of renal function is needed, because the presence of tubular dysfunction and proteinuria without impairment of eGFR may affect the renal safety of HIV-infected patients.AIDS PATIENT CARE and STDs 08/2014; DOI:10.1089/apc.2014.0134 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Proteinuria is a marker of vascular dysfunction that predicted increased cardiovascular mortality and is associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in population-based studies. We examined associations between proteinuria and HIV-associated NCI.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 09/2014; 67(1):30-35. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000000237 · 4.39 Impact Factor