Caspase 3 in breast cancer.
ABSTRACT An inability to undergo apoptosis is widely thought to contribute to both tumorigenesis and tumor progression. One of the key mediators of apoptosis is the thiol protease caspase 3. In this investigation, caspase 3 mRNA and protein expression in breast cancer was examined.
Caspase 3 was measured at the mRNA level using reverse transcription-PCR and at the protein level using both Western blotting and activity assays. Levels of apoptosis were determined using an ELISA, which detects nucleosomes released during DNA fragmentation.
Relative levels of caspase 3 mRNA were similar in breast carcinomas (n = 103), fibroadenomas (n = 25), and normal breast tissues (n = 6). However, levels of both the precursor and active forms of caspase 3 were significantly higher in carcinomas compared with both fibroadenomas (P = 0.0188) and normal breast tissues (P = 0.0002). Levels of apoptosis were also highest in the carcinomas and correlated significantly with active caspase 3 levels (r = 0.481; P = 0.0003). In the carcinomas, expression of caspase 3 showed no significant relationship with either tumor size, tumor grade, nodal status, or steroid receptor status but was significantly higher in ductal carcinomas than in lobular carcinomas (P = 0.0188).
We conclude that rates of apoptosis as measured by both caspase 3 activation and nucleosome release are higher in breast cancer than in nonmalignant breast tissue. This finding would appear to conflict with the widely held belief that apoptosis is reduced in malignancy. The proliferation:apoptosis ratio, however, may be higher in carcinomas than in the corresponding normal tissue.
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ABSTRACT: A series of novel benzothiazole derivatives bearing the ortho-hydroxy N-carbamoylhydrazone moiety were designed and synthesized and their cytotoxic activities against five cancer cell lines (NCI-H226, SK-N-SH, HT29, MKN45, and MDA-MB-231) were screened in vitro. Most of them showed moderate to excellent activity against all the tested cell lines. Among them, compounds 15g (procaspase-3 EC50 = 1.42 mu M) and 16b (procaspase-3 EC50 = 0.25 mu M) exhibited excellent antitumor activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.14 mu M to 0.98 mu M against all cancer cell lines, which were 1.8-8.7 times more active than the first procaspase activating compound (PAC-1) (procaspase-3 EC50 = 4.08 mu M). The structure activity relationship (SAR) analyses indicated that the introduction of a lipophilic group (a benzyloxy or heteroaryloxy group) at the 4-position of the 2-hydroxy phenyl ring was beneficial to antitumor activity, and the presence of substituents containing nitrogen that are positively charged at physiological pH could also improve antitumor activity. It was also confirmed that the steric effect of the 4-position substituent of the benzyloxy group had a significant influence on cytotoxic activity.European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2014; 86:257–269. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.08.058 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignant neoplasm in the world, and chemoprevention through dietary intervention strategy is an emerging option to reduce the incidence. D-pinitol (DP), a major component of soya bean, possesses attractive biological actions. We have investigated whether D-pinitol have an effect on tumor growth in vivo against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated rat mammary carcinogenesis and investigated its mechanism of action. Tumors were induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by a gastric dose of 20 mg/kg DMBA, and after 13 weeks of induction period, the rats were orally administered with D-pinitol for 45 days. At the end of the assay, animals in carcinogen control group prompted a tumor incidence of 100 % and developed a tumor volume of 8.35 ± 0.56, which was significantly reduced to 5.74 ± 0.32 for the animals treated with D-pinitol. The D-pinitol treatment not only decreased the tumor volume but also further examination revealed that tumors from animals that received D-pinitol reduced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation which in turn results in modulation of its downstreaming p53 and proteins of caspase-3 family. Bcl-2 expression and caspase-3 activation were also decreased after D-pinitol supplementation leading to induction of apoptosis and finally cell death. Furthermore, the status of the inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and tumor markers, lipid profile, and hormones was also significantly declined up on D-pinitol administration. Thus, it reveals the collective involvement of the abovementioned parameters along with NF-κB signaling through which D-pinitol induces apoptosis and subsequently suppresses breast cancer during DMBA-induced rat breast carcinogenesis.Journal of physiology and biochemistry 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s13105-015-0397-9 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Caspases are proteases with a well-defined role in apoptosis. However, increasing evidence indicates multiple functions of caspases outside apoptosis. Caspase-1 and caspase-11 have roles in inflammation and mediating inflammatory cell death by pyroptosis. Similarly, caspase-8 has dual role in cell death, mediating both receptor-mediated apoptosis and in its absence, necroptosis. Caspase-8 also functions in maintenance and homeostasis of the adult T-cell population. Caspase-3 has important roles in tissue differentiation, regeneration and neural development in ways that are distinct and do not involve any apoptotic activity. Several other caspases have demonstrated anti-tumor roles. Notable among them are caspase-2, -8 and -14. However, increased caspase-2 and -8 expression in certain types of tumor has also been linked to promoting tumorigenesis. Increased levels of caspase-3 in tumor cells causes apoptosis and secretion of paracrine factors that promotes compensatory proliferation in surrounding normal tissues, tumor cell repopulation and presents a barrier for effective therapeutic strategies. Besides this caspase-2 has emerged as a unique caspase with potential roles in maintaining genomic stability, metabolism, autophagy and aging. The present review focuses on some of these less studied and emerging functions of mammalian caspases.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 19 December 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.216.Cell Death and Differentiation 12/2014; 22(4). DOI:10.1038/cdd.2014.216 · 8.39 Impact Factor