Fexofenadine in chronic idiopathic urticaria: a clinical and immunohistochemical evaluation.
ABSTRACT Fexofenadine is a non-sedating selective third-generation antihistamine, which also exerts an anti-inflammatory action. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence on the expression of inflammatory skin mediators, together with the efficacy and tolerability, of fexofenadine in chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). Fexofenadine 180mg was administered once daily for 4 weeks after a placebo run-in phase of 3 to 7 days. Efficacy paramaters were obtained from patients' assessment of urticaria symptoms. Non-lesional skin of patients with active CIU was studied immunohistochemically before and after treatment. The expression of the following mediators was evaluated: adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, ELAM-1, VCAM-1); mast cell proteases (chymase and tryptase) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-3, IL-6 and TNF-alpha). Of the 20 subjects enrolled, 3 dropped out of the study. Treatment proved successful in most cases (88.2%) (p <0.01) and a significant improvement of all symptoms was registered. Treatment was well-tolerated by all patients; adverse events, neither serious nor drug-related, occurred in any case. Immunochemistry revealed at the baseline a significant expression of ELAM-1, VCAM-1, tryptase, chymase, and TNF-alpha (p= 0.05) in non-lesional skin of patients compared to normal controls. After treatment with fexofenadine, there was a significant decrease in the expression of ELAM-1 (p= 0.02), VCAM-1 (p= 0.04) and tryptase (p= 0.04), whereas no relevant change was observed for the other parameters examined. This work confirms the efficacy and tolerability of fexofenadine HCl 180mg in CIU. These preliminary data show a trend towards a decrease in the expression of tryptase and some adhesion molecules after treatment, suggesting an anti-inflammatory activity of fexofenadine.
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Article: Treatment of chronic urticaria.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Urticaria is a disorder characterized by rapid onset of localized swelling of the skin or mucosa, called wheals or urtica. According to frequency and duration, urticaria can be divided into acute and chronic type. Chronic urticaria is any type of urticaria occurring every day or twice per week, lasting longer than 6 weeks. Chronic urticaria is a common disorder and estimated prevalence is 1% of the population. Also, it is not rare in childhood. The pathogenesis of chronic urticaria has not yet been completely understood. Chronic urticaria is a heterogeneous group of disorders, and according to the etiology and cause, several groups of chronic urticaria are distinguished, i.e. autoimmune, pseudoallergic, infection-related, physical urticaria, vasculitis urticaria and idiopathic urticaria. Treatment and management of chronic urticaria can be non-pharmacological and pharmacological, and sometimes it is not possible to control the disease with antihistamines only, which are considered to be the mainstay of treatment. In severe cases of chronic urticaria, especially if autoimmunity has been proven, several authors describe different modules of immunomodulation: cyclosporine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate-mofetil, omalizumab, plasmapheresis, systemic corticosteroids, and immunoglobulin therapy. This article primarily addresses the treatment of chronic idiopathic and autoimmune urticaria.Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC / Hrvatsko dermatolosko drustvo 12/2009; 17(4):305-22. · 0.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate immunomodulatory properties of 4 antihistamines available in Japan. Isolated peripheral blood T cells from healthy volunteers were preincubated with cetirizine, loratadine, olopatadine, or fexofenadine for 30 minutes and then stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1 2 or IL-4 to skew immune response towards type 1 or type 2 helper T cells. RNA was extracted 6 hours later and semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using primers for IL-5 and interferon (IFN) gamma. Supernatants were collected 24 hours after stimulation, and cytokine production was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RT-PCR revealed that IL-12-induced expression of IFN-gamma was partially suppressed by loratadine and fexofenadine and that all 4 agents tested inhibited IL-4-induced expression of IL-5. ELISA demonstrated that IL-12-induced IFN-gamma production was significantly suppressed by cetirizine and fexofenadine and IL-4-induced IL-5 production was downregulated by three agents with the exception of cetirizine. This study demonstrates that antihistamines have varying immunomodulatory properties, suggesting treatment choice for atopic dermatitis can be directed by disease signs and symptoms.Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology: official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología 02/2007; 17(1):20-6. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Antihistamines are useful medications for the treatment of a variety of allergic disorders. Second-generation antihistamines avidly and selectively bind to peripheral histamine H1 receptors and, consequently, provide gratifying relief of histamine-mediated symptoms in a majority of atopic patients. This tight receptor specificity additionally leads to few effects on other neuronal or hormonal systems, with the result that adverse effects associated with these medications, with the exception of noticeable sedation in about 10% of cetirizine-treated patients, resemble those of placebo overall. Similarly, serious adverse drug reactions and interactions are uncommon with these medicines. Therapeutic interchange to one of the available second-generation antihistamines is a reasonable approach to limiting an institutional formulary, and adoption of such a policy has proven capable of creating substantial cost savings. Differences in overall efficacy and safety between available second-generation antihistamines, when administered in equivalent dosages, are not large. However, among the antihistamines presently available, fexofenadine may offer the best overall balance of effectiveness and safety, and this agent is an appropriate selection for initial or switch therapy for most patients with mild or moderate allergic symptoms. Cetirizine is the most potent antihistamine available and has been subjected to more clinical study than any other. This agent is appropriate for patients proven unresponsive to other antihistamines and for those with the most severe symptoms who might benefit from antihistamine treatment of the highest potency that can be dose-titrated up to maximal intensity.Drugs 02/2005; 65(3):341-84. · 4.63 Impact Factor