Is use of antiretroviral therapy among homosexual men associated with increased risk of transmission of HIV infection?

Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Mortimer Market Centre, off Capper Street, London WC1E 6AU, UK.
Sexually Transmitted Infections (Impact Factor: 3.4). 03/2003; 79(1):7-10. DOI: 10.1136/sti.79.1.7
Source: PubMed


Background/objective: There is concern that use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may be linked to increased sexual risk behaviour among homosexual men. We investigated sexual risk behaviour in HIV positive homosexual men and the relation between use of HAART and risk of HIV transmission.
A cross sectional study of 420 HIV positive homosexual men attending a London outpatient clinic. Individual data were collected from computer assisted self interview, STI screening, and clinical and laboratory databases.
Among all men, sexual behaviour associated with a high risk of HIV transmission was commonly reported. The most frequently reported type of partnership was casual partners only, and 22% reported unprotected anal intercourse with one or more new partners in the past month. Analysis of crude data showed that men on HAART had fewer sexual partners (median 9 versus 20, p=0.28), less unprotected anal intercourse (for example, 36% versus 27% had insertive unprotected anal intercourse with a new partner in the past year, p=0.03) and fewer acute sexually transmitted infections (33% versus 19%, p=0.004 in the past 12 months) than men not on HAART. Self assessed health status was similar between the two groups: 72% on HAART and 75% not on HAART rated their health as very or fairly good, (p=0.55). In multivariate analysis, differences in sexual risk behaviour between men on HAART and men not on HAART were attenuated by adjustment for age, time since HIV infection. CD4 count and self assessed health status.
HIV positive homosexual men attending a London outpatient clinic commonly reported sexual behaviour with a high risk of HIV transmission. However, behavioural and clinical risk factors for HIV transmission were consistently lower in men on HAART than men not on HAART. Although use of HAART by homosexual men with generally good health is not associated with higher risk behaviours, effective risk reduction interventions targeting known HIV positive homosexual men are still urgently needed.

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Available from: Catherine Mercer, Oct 07, 2015
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    • "Subsequent studies based in HIV clinics (carried out up to 2005) found either no association between ART use (and/or viral suppression) and sexual risk behaviour [15] [18], or have found that patients on ART in fact tended to have somewhat lower levels of sexual risk behaviour than patients not taking ART [22] [23]. Similarly, in the SMART trial of treatment interruption, the ART continuation treatment strategy was associated with lower rates of sexual risk behaviour than the ART interruption treatment strategy [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Life expectancy for people diagnosed with HIV has improved dramatically however the number of new infections in the UK remains high. Understanding patterns of sexual behaviour among people living with diagnosed HIV, and the factors associated with having condom-less sex, is important for informing HIV prevention strategies and clinical care. In addition, in view of the current interest in a policy of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) for all people diagnosed with HIV in the UK, it is of particular importance to assess whether ART use is associated with increased levels of condom-less sex. In this context the ASTRA study was designed to investigate current sexual activity, and attitudes to HIV transmission risk, in a large unselected sample of HIV-infected patients under care in the UK. The study also gathered background information on demographic, socio-economic, lifestyle and disease-related characteristics, and physical and psychological symptoms, in order to identify other key factors impacting on HIV patients and the behaviours which underpin transmission. In this paper we describe the study rationale, design, methods, response rate and the demographic characteristics of the participants. People diagnosed with HIV infection attending 8 UK HIV out-patient clinics in 2011-2012 were invited to participate in the study. Those who agreed to participate completed a confidential, self-administered pen-and-paper questionnaire, and their latest CD4 count and viral load test results were recorded. During the study period, 5112 eligible patients were invited to take part in the study and 3258 completed questionnaires were obtained, representing a response rate of 64% of eligible patients. The study includes 2248 men who have sex with men (MSM), 373 heterosexual men and 637 women. Future results from ASTRA will be a key resource for understanding HIV transmission within the UK, targeting prevention efforts, and informing clinical care of individuals living with HIV.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77230. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077230 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Many studies reported that many HIV-infected individuals reduced risky sexual practices though substantial numbers, ten to sixty percent continued to engage in HIV transmission-risk behaviors. These likely expose them to re-infection with drug resistant HIV strains and further infection with other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) which in turn fastens the AIDS progression [2, 3, 5, 11, 12]. There was also a report that indicated the initiation of ART results in an increased risk of sexual practices [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The rollout of Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) and improved health care services contributed in recuperating the quality of life and the functional status of HIV-positive people. These clinical effects of the treatment and cares are believed to bring a change on their sexual practices. The objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices of the HIV-positive people who were getting ART in selected Addis Ababa public hospitals. A qualitative in-depth interview was conducted. The interviews were made by trained nurse counselors of the same sex and were tape recorded. Verbatim transcription was made before the analysis. Thematic categorizations were made to present the findings. Most participants expressed regained sexual desires with initiation of ART while some others didn't appreciate the regains. Not using condoms or inconsistently using them was identified risky sexual practices. Sero-discordances and sero-status non-disclosure were common issues among the partners. Sero-status non-disclosure, non-use of condom and inconsistent using them were common sexual issues. These hinder the efforts that are being made to reduce new HIV infections and re-infections. Interventions against these problems can be made when clients come for their ART treatment and clinical care follow up.
    Pan African Medical Journal 12/2012; 13:80.
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    • "Twenty-two percent (22%) of HIV positive MSM reported engaging in unprotected anal sexual intercourse with one or more new partners one month prior to the study [14]. A number of studies have also found that as many as one in three HIV infected people may continue to engage in unprotected sex, with sexual contacts often occurring with seronegative or of unknown HIV status partners [15,16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its associated risky behaviors is complex and has not been sufficiently explored. It is especially important to look at some of the aspects of this relationship among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in order to develop effective intervention strategies to reduce HIV/AIDS risky behaviors. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge about HIV/AIDS and its risky behaviors among PLWHA. Methods Risk taking behavior among the participants was measured as the number of all risky behaviors before and after the knowledge of their HIV/AIDS positive status. Knowledge was measured by the extent to which participants answered the HIV/AIDS related questions. The relationships between the identified HIV/AIDS risky behaviors and the knowledge among PLWHA were analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling. Results 341 questionnaires were administered and 326 (96%) were completed and returned from PLWHA clients of HIV/AIDS outreach facility in Alabama. Analysis revealed that, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and knowledge of a properly used condom in preventing the infection through sexual activity were positively related with knowledge of where to get tested for HIV/AIDS. Using drugs before sex was significantly related with having sex with prostitutes (total effects’ standardized regression coefficient (TESRC)=0.29, p<0.001). Sharing the same syringe or needle with another person or other people to inject oneself was strongly related with number of sexual partners within one year (TESRC=0.25, p<0.001), and sex with injecting drug users (TESRC=0.45, p<0.001). Conclusion A deeper understanding of HIV/AIDS and some of its transmission pathways appears to be very effective in practicing the taking of preventive measures such as using condoms or getting tested for HIV. Increasing access to HIV/AIDS education could therefore be very useful in providing further gains in HIV/AIDS awareness among PLWHA.
    Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research 09/2012; 3(7):1-7. DOI:10.4172/2155-6113.S7-002 · 6.83 Impact Factor
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