Familial aggregation of exercise heart rate and blood pressure in response to 20 weeks of endurance training: the HERITAGE family study.
ABSTRACT Changes of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) relative to baseline levels in response to an extended period of endurance training are indices of cardiovascular adaptability. Familial influences were investigated for HR and BP at work rates of 50 W and 60 % of the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in response to 20 weeks of endurance training. A total of 481 participants from 99 sedentary White nuclear families in the HERITAGE Family Study (HERITAGE) were analyzed using a familial correlation model. Each of these training response phenotypes was adjusted for the effects of age, BMI, cigarette smoking, baseline VO2max, and its baseline values in fathers, mothers, sons and daughters, respectively. We found that maximal heritabilities reached 34 % and 29 % for HR training responses at 50 W and 60 % of VO2 max, respectively. The heritability was 22 % for systolic BP (SBP) training response at 50 W, but negligible at 60 % of VO2max. No significant heritabilities were found for diastolic BP (DBP) training responses at either 50 W or 60 % of VO2max. Familial influences for exercise HR and BP training responses were also assessed in a total of 257 participants from 113 Black family units in HERITAGE. However, there was no significant familial resemblance, which may be attributable to the small sample size. In conclusion, HR and SBP training responses during submaximal exercise in Whites were influenced by a modest, but significant, familial component. These observations are therefore in contrast to substantial familial effects (heritability estimates of about 50 %) previously reported for these variables measured at baseline.
- SourceAvailable from: Darren M Roffey[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The primary objective of this PhD program was to investigate the impact of training at a constant-load moderate-intensity (FATmax) compared to work-matched high-intensity intervals (HIIT) on the metabolic, physiological and psychosocial health profiles of sedentary overweight and obese men. This study was unique in that it was the first time the effect of exercise intensity had been investigated to examine concurrently the components of whole-body energy metabolism and body composition as measured using gold standard techniques. Based upon the positive alterations in blood lipids, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness and substrate oxidation, it appears that training at FATmax can positively impact health parameters as well as, or if not better than, high-intensity training. Furthermore, there are ramifications for public health messages and obesity management strategies arising from these findings, primarily attributable to the increased exercise adherence and the reduction in health risks stemming from the significant loss of abdominal visceral adipose tissue after FATmax training.
Article: Genomic predictors of trainability.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The concept of individual differences in the response to exercise training or trainability was defined three decades ago. In a series of experimental studies with pairs of monozygotic twins, evidence was found in support of a strong genotype dependency of the ability to respond to regular exercise. In the HERITAGE Family Study, it was observed that the heritability of the maximal oxygen uptake response to 20 weeks of standardized exercise training reached 47% after adjustment for age, sex, baseline maximal oxygen uptake and baseline body mass and composition. Candidate gene studies have not yielded as many validated gene targets and variants as originally anticipated. Genome-wide explorations have generated more convincing predictors of maximal oxygen uptake trainability. A genomic predictor score based on the number of favourable alleles carried at 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms appears to be able to identify low and high training response classes that differ by at least threefold. Combining transcriptomic and genomic technologies has also yielded highly promising results concerning the ability to predict trainability among sedentary people.Experimental physiology 10/2011; 97(3):347-52. · 3.17 Impact Factor
- MilMed Journal. 01/2008; 10(1):51-56.