Apparent mechanism-based inhibition of human CYP2D6 in vitro by paroxetine: Comparison with fluoxetine and quinidine
ABSTRACT Paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) activity, but the mechanism of inhibition is not established. To determine whether preincubation affects the inhibition of human liver microsomal dextromethorphan demethylation activity by paroxetine, we used a two-step incubation scheme in which all of the enzyme assay components, minus substrate, are preincubated with paroxetine. The kinetic parameters of inhibition were also estimated by varying the time of preincubation as well as the concentration of inhibitor. From these data, a Kitz-Wilson plot was constructed, allowing the estimation of both an apparent inactivator concentration required for half-maximal inactivation (K(I)) and the maximal rate constant of inactivation (k(INACT)) value for this interaction. Preincubation of paroxetine with human liver microsomes caused an approximately 8-fold reduction in the IC(50) value (0.34 versus 2.54 microM). Time-dependent inhibition was demonstrated with an apparent K(I) of 4.85 microM and an apparent k(INACT) value of 0.17 min(-1). Spectral scanning of CYP2D6 with paroxetine yielded an increase in absorbance at 456 nm suggesting paroxetine inactivation of CYP2D6 via the formation of a metabolite intermediate complex. This pattern is consistent with the metabolism of the methylenedioxy substituent in paroxetine; such substituents may produce mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 enzymes. In contrast, quinidine and fluoxetine, both of which are inhibitors of CYP2D6 activity, did not exhibit a preincubation-dependent increase in inhibitory potency. These data are consistent with mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2D6 by paroxetine but not by quinidine or fluoxetine.
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ABSTRACT: Background Yanhusuo (Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang; YHS), is a well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used in China for treating pain including chest pain, epigastric pain, and dysmenorrhea. Its alkaloid ingredients including tetrahydropalmatine are reported to inhibit cytochromes P450 (CYPs) activity in vitro. The present study is aimed to assess the potential of total alkaloid extract (TAE) from YHS to effect the activity and mRNA levels of five cytochromes P450 (CYPs) in rat. Methods Rats were administered TAE from YHS (0, 6, 30, and 150 mg/kg, daily) for 14 days, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in serum were assayed, and hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of the liver were prepared for light microscopy. The effects of TAE on five CYPs activity and mRNA levels were quantitated by cocktail probe drugs using a rapid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. Results In general, serum ALT levels showed no significant changes, and the histopathology appeared largely normal compared with that in the control rats. At 30 and 150 mg/kg TAE dosages, an increase in liver CYP2E1 and CYP3A1 enzyme activity were observed. Moreover, the mRNA levels of CYP2E1 and CYP3A1 in the rat liver, lung, and intestine were significantly up-regulated with TAE from 6 and 30 mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, treatment with TAE (150 mg/kg) enhanced the activities and the mRNA levels of CYP1A2 and CYP2C11 in rats. However, the activity or mRNA level of CYP2D1 remained unchanged. Conclusions These results suggest that TAE-induced CYPs activity in the rat liver results from the elevated mRNA levels of CYPs. Co-administration of prescriptions containing YHS should consider a potential herb (drug)–drug interaction mediated by the induction of CYP2E1 and CYP3A1 enzymes.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2014; 14(1):306. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-306 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 1. Rhein, an active ingredient in the root of rhubarb, is used for its beneficial effects in a variety of clinical applications including the treatment of osteoarthritis and diabetic nephropathy. However, its hepatotoxicity has been reported in recent years. Rhein belongs to the conjugate structure which could be activated to reactive metabolites (RMs) inducing side-effects. This study is to explore the relationship between RMs and hepatotoxicity. 2. Based on the early detection of RMs, we have established a series of key technologies to research rhein hepatotoxicity mechanism: IC50 shift experiments and reduced glutathione (GSH) trapping experiment are adopted to identify RMs. The model of low activity of CYP450 enzymes (CYPs) in primary rat hepatocyte is constructed to analyze the relationship between the primary metabolic enzyme and hepatotoxicity of rhein better. 3. The IC50 shift value for CYP2C19 is 1.989, it suggests that CYP2C19 could activate rhein to RM. The structure of RM is epoxide intermediate. Besides, it is found that CYP2C19 is a primary metabolic enzyme for rhein. In the cytotoxicity assay, it is reported that rhein could cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and AST levels could be restored by adding inhibitor of CYP2C19 together with rhein, which further shows that CYP2C19 could mediate the hepatotoxicity of rhein. 4. We put forward the possible mechanism that reactive metabolite activation by CYP2C19 mediated rhein hepatotoxicity, it provides important information on predicting in vivo drug-induced liver injury (DILI).Xenobiotica 11/2014; 45(4). DOI:10.3109/00498254.2014.984794 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Here, we summarize the discussion topics at the 2013 AAPS symposium on “Dealing with complex drug-drug interactions: towards mechanistic models”. The unmanageable adverse events caused by drug-drug interactions (DDIs), leading to market withdrawal or restriction in use, are increasingly being avoided with our improvement in quantitative prediction of DDIs early in drug development, and that significant challenges remain when inhibitor drugs and/or metabolites affect not one but multiple pathways of clearance. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models, in combination with established in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolations of intestinal and hepatic disposition, have been successfully applied to predict clinical pharmacokinetics and DDIs, especially for drugs with CYP-mediated metabolism, and to explain transporter-mediated and complex DDIs. Although continuous developments are being made towards improved mechanistic prediction of the transporter-enzyme interplay in the hepatic and intestinal disposition and characterizing the metabolites contribution to DDIs, prediction of both enzyme and transporter mediated DDI remains difficult. Regulatory guidelines recommended use of PBPK modeling for the quantitative prediction and evaluation of DDIs involving multiple perpetrators and metabolites. Such mechanistic modeling approaches culminate to the consensus that modeling is helpful in predicting DDIs and quantitatively rationalize clinical findings in complex situations. Furthermore, they provide the basis for the prediction and/or understanding pharmacokinetics in different populations: renally impaired, pediatrics, or ethnic groups where the conduct of clinical studies might not be feasible in early drug development stages, but some guidance on management of dosage is necessary. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition 12/2014; 36(2). DOI:10.1002/bdd.1934 · 2.18 Impact Factor