Rabbit antithymocyte globulin as induction immunotherapy in pediatric heart transplantation.
ABSTRACT There is little published data on the use of antithymocyte globulins in children. This retrospective study describes the use of Thymoglobulin (Imtix, SangStat, Lyon, France) in pediatric cardiac transplantation over a 13-year period in a single center that adjusted the dose of Thymoglobulin according to platelet count monitoring and examines the short-term hematological effects as well as longer-term outcomes.
Data for all children who received a heart transplant at the Hôpital Cardiologique at Lyon from 1984 to 2001 and who were given Thymoglobulin as part of their immunosuppressive protocol were extracted. The dose of Thymoglobulin given depended on baseline platelet count and was 2, 1.5, or 1 mg/kg per day over 5 days for the following platelet count groups: greater than 150,000/mm (normal group), 100 to 150,000/mm (mild thrombocytopenia group), and 50 to 100,000/mm (moderate thrombocytopenia group).
Thirty children of median age 14.2 years were given a median cumulative dose of Thymoglobulin of 8 mg/kg per patient; the moderate thrombocytopenia subgroup was given significantly less (6.4 mg/kg) ( P=0.032). Immediate tolerability of Thymoglobulin was good, with no cases of first-dose syndrome, anaphylaxis, or serum sickness. The platelet count decreased at the start of therapy, but recovered after discontinuation, and did not give rise to clinical concern. Patients were followed up for a median of 6.3 years (7 days-15.5 years); actuarial survival was 90%, 86%, and 74.5%, respectively, at 1, 5, and 10 years. In the first year, 50% of patients suffered an episode of rejection. The overall incidence of infection in the month following transplantation was 40%. One lymphoma occurred at 5 months.
The use of Thymoglobulin in pediatric heart-transplant patients as part of an immunosuppressive protocol, with dose adjustment according to platelet levels, has been shown to be effective in terms of rejection rate and patient survival and safe in terms of the incidence of infections and malignancy.
Article: Lung Transplant Infection.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lung transplantation has become an accepted therapeutic procedure for the treatment of end-stage pulmonary parenchymal and vascular disease. Despite improved survival rates over the decades, lung transplant recipients have lower survival rates than other solid organ transplant recipients. The morbidity and mortality following lung transplantation is largely due to infection and rejection related complications. This article will review the common infections that develop in the lung transplant recipient, including the general risk factors for infection in this population, and the most frequent bacterial, viral, fungal and other less frequent opportunistic infections. The epidemiology, diagnosis, prophylaxis, treatment, and outcomes for the different microbial pathogens will be reviewed. The effects of infection on lung transplant rejection will also be discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.Respirology 05/2012; · 2.78 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To assess the differences in rejection and infection complications between the most common contemporary immunosuppression regimen in pediatric heart transplantation (cytolytic induction, tacrolimus based) and classic triple-therapy (cyclosporine based without induction). STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective, historical-control, observational study comparing outcomes in patients who underwent traditional immunosuppression (control group, n = 64) with those for whom the contemporary protocol was used (n = 39). Episodes of rejection, viremia (cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus), serious bacterial or fungal infections, anemia or neutropenia requiring treatment in the first year after heart transplantation, and 1-year survival were compared between traditional and contemporary immunosuppression groups. RESULTS: The 2 groups were similar with respect to baseline demographics. There were no differences in risk of cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or bacterial or fungal infections in the first year post-transplantation. Patients in the contemporary group were more likely to need therapy for anemia (51% vs 14%, P < .001) or neutropenia (10% vs 0%, P = .019). However, more contemporary protocol patients were rejection-free in the first year post-transplantation (63% vs 41%, P = .03). Overall graft survival was similar between groups (P = .15). CONCLUSIONS: A contemporary immunosuppression regimen using tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and induction was associated with less rejection in the first year, with no difference in the risk of infection but greater risk of anemia and neutropenia requiring treatment. Long-term follow-up on these patients will evaluate the impact of the immunosuppression regimen on survival.The Journal of pediatrics 02/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: rATG is used for HTx induction but is costly and associated with infection and PTLD. Hypothesis: Tailoring rATG induction with CD3 monitoring results in less infection, reduced costs, and similar rejection. Retrospective review of HTx recipients receiving rATG induction. Control cases received "usual" rATG dosing (1.5 mg/kg/day typically × 5 days). Starting in October 2009, absolute CD3 monitoring (target <25 cells/mm(3) ) guided rATG dosing (study cases). Outcomes included first-year incidence of infection/rejection, direct costs of therapy, and incidence of PTLD/death. Study cases (n = 32) received fewer doses of rATG (median 4 vs. 5, p < 0.001) and less total rATG (median 3.2 vs. 7.4 mg/kg, p < 0.001) compared with controls (n = 17). There was no difference in incidence of infection, rejection, or patient survival during the first year post-HTx. There was one early death in both groups and one late case of PTLD in the control group. Drug savings were significant (median drug cost per patient $2718 vs. $4756, p < 0.001). CD3-tailored rATG induction in HTx recipients is associated with reduced drug costs and similar rates of rejection/infection. Longer follow-up will determine whether extended benefits are associated with this induction monitoring strategy.Pediatric Transplantation 11/2013; · 1.50 Impact Factor