Rabbit antithymocyte globulin as induction immunotherapy in pediatric heart transplantation.
ABSTRACT There is little published data on the use of antithymocyte globulins in children. This retrospective study describes the use of Thymoglobulin (Imtix, SangStat, Lyon, France) in pediatric cardiac transplantation over a 13-year period in a single center that adjusted the dose of Thymoglobulin according to platelet count monitoring and examines the short-term hematological effects as well as longer-term outcomes.
Data for all children who received a heart transplant at the Hôpital Cardiologique at Lyon from 1984 to 2001 and who were given Thymoglobulin as part of their immunosuppressive protocol were extracted. The dose of Thymoglobulin given depended on baseline platelet count and was 2, 1.5, or 1 mg/kg per day over 5 days for the following platelet count groups: greater than 150,000/mm (normal group), 100 to 150,000/mm (mild thrombocytopenia group), and 50 to 100,000/mm (moderate thrombocytopenia group).
Thirty children of median age 14.2 years were given a median cumulative dose of Thymoglobulin of 8 mg/kg per patient; the moderate thrombocytopenia subgroup was given significantly less (6.4 mg/kg) ( P=0.032). Immediate tolerability of Thymoglobulin was good, with no cases of first-dose syndrome, anaphylaxis, or serum sickness. The platelet count decreased at the start of therapy, but recovered after discontinuation, and did not give rise to clinical concern. Patients were followed up for a median of 6.3 years (7 days-15.5 years); actuarial survival was 90%, 86%, and 74.5%, respectively, at 1, 5, and 10 years. In the first year, 50% of patients suffered an episode of rejection. The overall incidence of infection in the month following transplantation was 40%. One lymphoma occurred at 5 months.
The use of Thymoglobulin in pediatric heart-transplant patients as part of an immunosuppressive protocol, with dose adjustment according to platelet levels, has been shown to be effective in terms of rejection rate and patient survival and safe in terms of the incidence of infections and malignancy.
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ABSTRACT: The most modifiable risk factor for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is the type and dose of induction and maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. It is challenging to identify the contribution of a single agent such as rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) in the setting of multidrug therapy. Registry analyses can be helpful but are limited by methodological restrictions and inclusion of historical patient cohorts. These are typically from eras when rATG dosing was markedly higher than currently (e.g. total dose 14 mg/kg versus 6 mg/kg now), accompanied by higher exposure to maintenance therapies, and often an absence of antiviral prophylaxis. The largest registry analysis to assess rATG specifically found no risk of PTLD after kidney transplantation, but conflicting results have been reported, highlighting the difficulty of interpreting this type of analysis. The relative rarity of PTLD means that individual controlled trials are underpowered to assess its occurrence, but the available data do not suggest an effect of rATG. A pooled analysis of data from studies of rATG induction in kidney and heart transplantation found the incidence of PTLD to be comparable to published reports in the overall transplant population. Data on the effect of rATG dose are inconclusive, but in patients receiving antiviral prophylaxis it does not appear to be influential. Nevertheless, it would seem reasonable to employ the lowest dose of rATG compatible with effective induction, particularly in EBV-seronegative recipients and other high-risk groups such as heart-lung transplant recipients. Overall, the risk of PTLD following rATG induction therapy with modern dosing regimens and under current management conditions appears unlikely to make an important contribution to the risk: benefit balance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Transplant Immunology 04/2015; 28. DOI:10.1016/j.trim.2015.04.003 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clinical data relating to rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) induction in heart transplantation are far less extensive than for other immunosuppressants, or indeed for rATG in other indications. This was highlighted by the low grade of evidence and the lack of detailed recommendations for prescribing rATG in the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) guidelines. The heart transplant population includes an increasing frequency of patients on mechanical circulatory support (MCS), often with ongoing infection and/or presensitization, who are at high immunological risk but also vulnerable to infectious complications. The number of patients with renal impairment is also growing due to lengthening waiting times, intensifying the need for strategies that minimize calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) toxicity. Additionally, the importance of donor specific antibodies (DSA) in predicting graft failure is influencing immunosuppressive regimens. In the light of these developments, and in view of the lack of evidence-based prescribing criteria, experts from Germany, Austria and Switzerland convened to identify indications for rATG induction in heart transplantation and to develop an algorithm for its use based on patient characteristics.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Transplant International 11/2014; 28(3). DOI:10.1111/tri.12480 · 3.16 Impact Factor
- Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 01/2010; 94(1 Suppl):e16-76. · 1.12 Impact Factor