Diagnosis and management of epilepsy.

Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology, London Health Sciences Centre - University Campus, London, ON.
Canadian Medical Association Journal (Impact Factor: 5.81). 03/2003; 168(4):441-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This article concisely describes the more common epilepsy conditions and will enable physicians to efficiently evaluate and manage these disorders. Salient aspects of the history and examination, together with electroencephalography, will usually determine the epilepsy syndrome (category), forming the basis for any further investigation and possible antiepileptic therapy. Imaging may be required in some circumstances.

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    ABSTRACT: Diagnosing epilepsy is a lengthy and burdensome process for patients and their family. Although the need for a more patient-centered approach in clinical practice is widely acknowledged, empirical evidence regarding patient preferences for diagnostic modalities in epilepsy is missing. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify to what extent important attributes of diagnostic procedures in epilepsy affect preferences for a procedure, 2) to determine the relative importance of these attributes, and 3) to calculate overall utility scores for routine electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings. A discrete choice experiment was performed to determine patients' preferences, which involved presentation of pairwise choice tasks regarding hypothetical scenarios. Scenarios varied along six attributes: "way of measuring brain activity", "duration", "freedom of movement", "travel time", "type of additional examination", and "chance of additional examination". Choice tasks were constructed using a statistically efficient design, and the questionnaire contained 15 unique unlabeled choice tasks. Mixed multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate patients' preferences. A total of 289 questionnaires were included in the analysis. McFadden's pseudo R(2) showed a model fit of 0.28, and all attributes were statistically significant. Heterogeneity in preferences was present for all attributes. "Freedom of movement" and "Chance of additional examination" were perceived as the most important attributes. Overall utility scores did not substantially differ between routine EEG and MEG. This study suggests that the identified attributes are important in determining patients' preference for epilepsy diagnostics. It can be concluded that MEG is not necessarily more patient-friendly than a routine EEG in primary diagnostics and, regarding additional diagnostics, patients have a strong preference for long-term 24-h EEG over EEG after sleep deprivation. Furthermore, barring substantial heterogeneity within the parameters in mind, our study suggests that it is important to take individual preferences into account in medical decision-making.
    Epilepsy & Behavior 01/2014; 31C:102-109. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The authors present a review article on memory aspects of temporal lobe epilepsy in childhood. METHODS: We performed a search in the literature. RESULTS: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in childhood present with great clinical, electroencephalographic and etiological diversity. The neuropsychological features in children with TLE are not well-defined yet. The relationship between the lateralization of the lesion and performance on memory tests is not established. CONCLUSION: The studies performed in children with TLE show controversy data. This finding may be due to the etiological, clinical and electroencephalographic diversity seen in such group of children. Besides, most studies use different assessments. Therefore, it is clear that more studies are necessary to elucidate which neuropsychological deficits occur in children with TLE.
    Journal of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology 03/2006; 12(1):22-25.
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    ABSTRACT: RESUMO Introdução: Há evidências de que pessoas com alguns tipos de epilepsia podem apresentar prejuízos cognitivos, sendo que para alguns pacientes, tais déficits cognitivos podem ser mais debilitantes do que suas crises epilépticas. A disfunção do lobo frontal é relatada em adultos com epilepsia do lobo temporal, caracte-rizada pela disfunção executiva. Objetivo: Rever a literatura sobre a ocorrência de disfunção de lobo frontal em crianças e adolescentes com epilepsia do lobo temporal. Métodos: Revisão sistemática da literatura compulsada no PUBMED. Resultados: A disfunção do lobo frontal tem sido pouco estudada em crianças com epilepsia, em especial com epilepsia do lobo temporal. No único estudo sobre este assunto, demonstrou-se que há um déficit executivo, sendo que as crianças com esclerose mesial têm maiores déficits de execução/ planejamento do que aquelas com lesões neocorticais temporais ou frontais. A presença de uma disfunção do lobo frontal nos pacientes com epilepsia parcial e generalizada pode corroborar as evidências de que epilepsia e transtorno psiquiátrico são epifenômenos e não fenômenos com relação causa-efeito. Conclu-sões: Há uma escassez de artigos sobre a disfunção do lobo frontal em crianças com epilepsia do lobo tempo-ral, sendo de interesse saber se esta ocorre e se pacientes com etiologias distintas apresentam diferentes graus de comprometimento destas funções. Unitermos: epilepsia, crianças, lobo frontal, lobo temporal, transtornos psiquiátricos. ABSTRACT Frontal lobe disfunction in children and adolescents with temporal lobe epilepsy and possible correlation with psychiatric disorders Introduction: There is evidence that individuals with certain types of epilepsy may present cognitive disorders, and that these disorders can be more debilitating than seizures proper. Frontal lobe disorders are reported in adults with temporal lobe epilepsy, carachterized by executive disfunction. Rationale: Literary revision of work concerning the occurence of frontal lobe dysfunction in children and adolescents with temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods: Systematic revision of published literature in PUBMED. Results: Frontal lobe dysfunction has been poorly studied in children with epilepsy, especially in temporal lobe epilepsy. In the only study on the subject, executive deficit was demonstrated. Moreover, children with mesial sclerosis had more deficit in execution/planning than those with frontal or temporal neocortical lesions. Presence of frontal lobe dysfunction, in patients with partial and generalized epilepsy, may corroborate evidence that epilepsy and psychiatric disorders are epiphenomena and not cause-effect related phenomena. Conclusion: There are few articles on frontal lobe dysfunction in children with temporal lobe epilepsy. It would be interesting to find out if, and how much this occurs, and if patients with distinct etiologies present different levels of functional disability.
    Journal of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology 01/2005; 11(3).


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