Potent metalloporphyrin peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst protects against the development of doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction.
ABSTRACT Increased oxidative stress and dysregulation of nitric oxide have been implicated in the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin (DOX), a commonly used antitumor agent. Peroxynitrite is a reactive oxidant produced from nitric oxide and superoxide in various forms of cardiac injury. Using a novel metalloporphyrinic peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, FP15, and nitric oxide synthase inhibitors or knockout mice, we now delineate the pathogenetic role of peroxynitrite in rodent models of DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction.
Mice received a single injection of DOX (25 mg/kg IP). Five days after DOX administration, left ventricular performance was significantly depressed, and high mortality was noted. Treatment with FP15 and an inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, aminoguanidine, reduced DOX-induced mortality and improved cardiac function. Genetic deletion of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene was also accompanied by better preservation of cardiac performance. In contrast, inhibition of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase with N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester increased DOX-induced mortality. FP15 reduced the DOX-induced increase in serum LDH and creatine kinase activities. Furthermore, FP15 prevented the DOX-induced increase in lipid peroxidation, nitrotyrosine formation, and metalloproteinase activation in the heart but not NAD(P)H-driven superoxide generation. Peroxynitrite neutralization did not interfere with the antitumor effect of DOX. FP15 also decreased ischemic injury in rats and improved cardiac function and survival of mice in a chronic model of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.
Thus, peroxynitrite plays a key role in the pathogenesis of DOX-induced cardiac failure. Targeting peroxynitrite formation may represent a new cardioprotective strategy after DOX exposure or in other conditions associated with peroxynitrite formation, including myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.
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ABSTRACT: Multi-modality cancer treatments that include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and targeted agents are highly effective therapies. Their use, especially in combination, is limited by the risk of significant cardiac toxicity. The current paradigm for minimizing cardiac morbidity, based on serial cardiac function monitoring, is suboptimal. An alternative approach based on biomarker testing, has emerged as a promising adjunct and a potential substitute to routine echocardiography. Biomarkers, most prominently cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides, have been evaluated for their ability to describe the risk of potential cardiac dysfunction in clinically asymptomatic patients. Early rises in cardiac troponin concentrations have consistently predicted the risk and severity of significant cardiac events in patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Biomarkers represent a novel, efficient, and robust clinical decision tool for the management of cancer therapy-induced cardiotoxicity. This article aims to review the clinical evidence that supports the use of established biomarkers such as cardiac troponins and natriuretic peptides, as well as emerging data on proposed biomarkers.Frontiers in Oncology 10/2014; 4:277. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2014.00277
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ABSTRACT: The anticancer efficacy of anthracyclines is limited by cumulative dose-dependent early and delayed cardiotoxicity resulting in congestive heart failure. Mechanisms responsible for anthracycline-induced heart damage are controversially discussed and effective preventive measures are preferable. Here, we analyzed the influence of the lipid lowering drug lovastatin on anthracycline-induced late cardiotoxicity as analyzed three month after treatment of C57BL/6 mice with five low doses of doxorubicin (5 × 3 mg/kg BW; i.p.). Doxorubicin increased the cardiac mRNA levels of BNP, IL-6 and CTGF, while the expression of ANP remained unchanged. Lovastatin counteracted these persisting cardiac stress responses evoked by the anthracycline. Doxorubicin-induced fibrotic alterations were neither detected by histochemical collagen staining of heart sections nor by analysis of the mRNA expression of collagens. Extensive qRT-PCR-array based analyses revealed a large increase in the mRNA level of heat shock protein Hspa1b in doxorubicin-treated mice, which was mitigated by lovastatin co-treatment. Electron microscopy together with qPCR-based analysis of mitochondrial DNA content indicate that lovastatin attenuates doxorubicin-stimulated hyperproliferation of mitochondria. This was not paralleled by increased expression of oxidative stress responsive genes or senescence-associated proteins. Echocardiographic analyses disclosed that lovastatin protects from the doxorubicin-induced decrease in the left ventricular posterior wall diameter (LVPWD), while constrictions in fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF) evoked by doxorubicin were not amended by the statin. Taken together, the data suggest beneficial effects of lovastatin against doxorubicin-induced delayed cardiotoxicity. Clinical studies are preferable to scrutinize the usefulness of statins for the prevention of anthracycline-induced late cardiotoxicity.Pharmacological Research 11/2014; 91. DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2014.11.003 · 3.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. Doxorubicin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent, is associated with acute and chronic cardiotoxicity, which is cumulatively dose-dependent. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), the extract of Astragalus membranaceus with strong antitumor and antiglomerulonephritis activity, can effectively alleviate inflammation. However, whether APS could ameliorate chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity is not understood. Here, we investigated the protective effects of APS on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and elucidated the underlying mechanisms of the protective effects of APS. Methods. We analyzed myocardial injury in cancer patients who underwent doxorubicin chemotherapy and generated a doxorubicin-induced neonatal rat cardiomyocyte injury model and a mouse heart failure model. Echocardiography, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, TUNEL, DNA laddering, and Western blotting were performed to observe cell survival, oxidative stress, and inflammatory signal pathways in cardiomyocytes. Results. Treatment of patients with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin led to heart dysfunction. Doxorubicin reduced cardiomyocyte viability and induced C57BL/6J mouse heart failure with concurrent elevated ROS generation and apoptosis, which, however, was attenuated by APS treatment. In addition, there was profound inhibition of p38MAPK and activation of Akt after APS treatment. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that APS could suppress oxidative stress and apoptosis, ameliorating doxorubicin-mediated cardiotoxicity by regulating the PI3k/Akt and p38MAPK pathways.Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 01/2014; 2014:674219. DOI:10.1155/2014/674219 · 3.36 Impact Factor