Retinoic acid inhibits elastase-induced injury in human lung epithelial cell lines
ABSTRACT The protective effects of retinoic acid on elastase-induced lung epithelial cell injury were studied using elastase extracted from purulent human sputum, the BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cell line, A549 human type II lung cell line, and primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells. Elastase decreased viability of BEAS-2B cells, A549 cells, and human tracheal epithelial cells in concentration- and time-dependent fashions. Elastase also induced apoptosis of BEAS-2B cells, A549 cells, and the tracheal epithelial cells detected with cell death detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) methods. Retinoic acid alone did not affect the viability of BEAS-2B cells, A549 cells, or the tracheal epithelial cells, and did not induce apoptosis of the cells. However, retinoic acid prevented the decreases in the viability and reduced apoptosis of BEAS-2B cells, A549 cells, and the tracheal epithelial cells induced by elastase. Likewise, retinoic acid inhibited caspase 3 activity in BEAS-2B cells and A549 cells induced by elastase, as well as proteolytic activity of elastase. Furthermore, caspase 3 inhibitor inhibited the elastase-induced apoptosis of the cells. These findings suggest that retinoic acid may inhibit elastase-induced lung epithelial cell injury partly through the inhibition of proteolytic activity of elastase and through the inhibition of caspase 3 activity by elastase. Retinoic acid may, therefore, have protective effects against the elastase-induced lung injury and subsequent development of pulmonary emphysema.
- SourceAvailable from: Stephen Alan Greene
- "Recent laboratory evidence suggests that vitamin A could have protective effects on the respiratory status of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Thus, while elastinolytic proteinases (elastases) constitute a likely cause of tissue injury in the lung in CF , vitamin A (retinoic acid, 100 nM), has been shown to protect against elastase-induced lung damage in bronchial epithelial cell lines in culture . In addition, retinoic acid (1 AM) has an anti-oxidant effect in the lung, protecting against hyperoxia-mediated cell-cycle arrest of lung alveolar epithelial cells by preserving late G1 cyclin activities . "
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