A technique was developed to create a reproducible femoral neck fracture in vitro using 5-month-old JW/CSK series male rabbits. Force attenuation of a newly developed damping material was also evaluated using this model. Ten pairs of the femora with smaller deviations in length and weight were harvested and cleaned of soft tissue. Either a right or left of each pair of the specimens was randomly selected and put into either the control or the experimental group, both of which contained equal numbers of the right and left femora. The specimens were attached to an L-shaped plate and embedded in a resin from the proximal diaphysis to the distal end so as to maintain a consistent position of the femora. They were mounted and fixed on a pedestal slanted in the coronal plane at 20 degrees. The impact load testing was conducted using an impact mallet dropped from a height of 3 cm. The impact load was applied onto the femoral head. To the specimens in the experimental group, attenuated impact forces were loaded through the damping material, but those in the control group were subjected to forces directly transmitted without the material. All the impact testing was performed in a temperature and humidity controlled chamber. All of the femoral specimens exposed to the direct impact forces (controlled group) sustained fracture at the neck. The fracture line passed from the base of the femoral head laterally and to the calcar area just proximal to the minor trochanter medially. The location of each fracture line was almost identical among the specimens. None of the specimens that were exposed to the impact force through the damping material (experimental group) sustained fracture macroscopically and roentgenographically.
"By loading the head in compression with the distal femur fixed, we mimicked natural loading, and thereby tested the strength of the femoral neck in cantilever bending (Fig. 1). Similar techniques have been used in mice (Akhter et al., 2004b), rabbits (Ohnishi et al., 2003), and humans (Augat et al., 1996). Because of its lower cross-sectional area and moments of inertia, coupled to large bending moments, the femoral neck could be expected to be the most likely site of fracture. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both genetic and environmental factors are known to influence the structure of bone, contributing to its mechanical behavior during, and adaptive response to, loading. We introduce a novel approach to simultaneously address the genetically mediated, exercise-related effects on bone morphometrics and strength, using mice that had been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running (16 generations). Female mice from high running and control lines were either allowed (n=12, 12, respectively) or denied (n=11, 12, respectively) access to wheels for 20 months. Femoral shaft, neck, and head were measured with calipers and via micro-computed tomography. Fracture characteristics of the femoral head were assessed in cantilever bending. After adjusting for variation in body mass by two-way analysis of covariance, distal width of the femur increased as a result of selective breeding, and mediolateral femoral diameter was reduced by wheel access. Cross-sectional area of the femoral mid-shaft showed a significant linetype x activity effect, increasing with wheel access in high-running lines but decreasing in control lines. Body mass was significantly positively correlated with many of the morphometric traits studied. Fracture load of the femoral neck was strongly positively predicted by morphometric traits of the femoral neck (r2>0.30), but no significant effects of selective breeding or wheel access were found. The significant correlations of body mass with femoral morphometric traits underscore the importance of controlling for body size when analyzing the response of bone size and shape to experimental treatments. After controlling for body mass, measures of the femoral neck remain significant predictors of femoral neck strength.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-term consumption of high-protein (HP) diets at 35% of energy is postulated to negatively influence bone health. Previous studies have not comprehensively examined the biochemical, physical, and biomechanical properties of bone required to arrive at this conclusion. Our objective in this study was to examine the long-term effect of a HP diet on bone metabolism, mass, and strength in rats. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomized to receive for 4, 8, 12, or 17 mo a normal-protein (NP) control diet (15% of energy) or a HP diet (35% of energy). Diets were balanced for calcium because the protein sources were rich in calcium. At each time point, measurements included weight, body composition, and bone mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, mechanical strength at the mid-diaphysis of femur and tibia, microarchitecture of femurs using microcomputerized tomography and serum osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal crosslinks of type I collagen (CTX), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), leptin, and adiponectin. Effects of diet, time, and their interaction were tested using factorial ANOVA. The HP diet resulted in lower body weight, total body, and abdominal fat and higher lean mass. Serum leptin and adiponectin were greater in HP-fed than in NP-fed rats, but IGF-1 did not differ between the groups. Whereas the HP diet resulted in higher relative bone mineral content (g/kg) in the femur, tibia, and vertebrae, serum osteocalcin and CTX and bone internal architecture and biomechanical strength were unaffected. In conclusion, HP diets at 35% of energy lower body fat content without hindering the mechanical and weight-bearing properties of bone.
Journal of Nutrition 09/2009; 139(11):2099-105. DOI:10.3945/jn.109.106377 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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