A femoral neck fracture model in rabbits.
ABSTRACT A technique was developed to create a reproducible femoral neck fracture in vitro using 5-month-old JW/CSK series male rabbits. Force attenuation of a newly developed damping material was also evaluated using this model. Ten pairs of the femora with smaller deviations in length and weight were harvested and cleaned of soft tissue. Either a right or left of each pair of the specimens was randomly selected and put into either the control or the experimental group, both of which contained equal numbers of the right and left femora. The specimens were attached to an L-shaped plate and embedded in a resin from the proximal diaphysis to the distal end so as to maintain a consistent position of the femora. They were mounted and fixed on a pedestal slanted in the coronal plane at 20 degrees. The impact load testing was conducted using an impact mallet dropped from a height of 3 cm. The impact load was applied onto the femoral head. To the specimens in the experimental group, attenuated impact forces were loaded through the damping material, but those in the control group were subjected to forces directly transmitted without the material. All the impact testing was performed in a temperature and humidity controlled chamber. All of the femoral specimens exposed to the direct impact forces (controlled group) sustained fracture at the neck. The fracture line passed from the base of the femoral head laterally and to the calcar area just proximal to the minor trochanter medially. The location of each fracture line was almost identical among the specimens. None of the specimens that were exposed to the impact force through the damping material (experimental group) sustained fracture macroscopically and roentgenographically.
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ABSTRACT: Long-term consumption of high-protein (HP) diets at 35% of energy is postulated to negatively influence bone health. Previous studies have not comprehensively examined the biochemical, physical, and biomechanical properties of bone required to arrive at this conclusion. Our objective in this study was to examine the long-term effect of a HP diet on bone metabolism, mass, and strength in rats. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomized to receive for 4, 8, 12, or 17 mo a normal-protein (NP) control diet (15% of energy) or a HP diet (35% of energy). Diets were balanced for calcium because the protein sources were rich in calcium. At each time point, measurements included weight, body composition, and bone mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, mechanical strength at the mid-diaphysis of femur and tibia, microarchitecture of femurs using microcomputerized tomography and serum osteocalcin, carboxy-terminal crosslinks of type I collagen (CTX), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), leptin, and adiponectin. Effects of diet, time, and their interaction were tested using factorial ANOVA. The HP diet resulted in lower body weight, total body, and abdominal fat and higher lean mass. Serum leptin and adiponectin were greater in HP-fed than in NP-fed rats, but IGF-1 did not differ between the groups. Whereas the HP diet resulted in higher relative bone mineral content (g/kg) in the femur, tibia, and vertebrae, serum osteocalcin and CTX and bone internal architecture and biomechanical strength were unaffected. In conclusion, HP diets at 35% of energy lower body fat content without hindering the mechanical and weight-bearing properties of bone.Journal of Nutrition 09/2009; 139(11):2099-105. DOI:10.3945/jn.109.106377 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Significant difficulties are caused by the delayed union of femoral neck fractures. To address this issue, we designed a new device that applies recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to promote fracture union. A cannulated screw with holes was used to deliver rhBMP-2 to the fracture site. Fibrin glue was used as an adhesive agent to hold rhBMP-2 in the vicinity of fracture. RhBMP-2 was protected with polylactide-glycolide acid microspheres. RhBMP-2 release was evaluated to determine the effect of the improved screws. When polylactide-glycolide acid microspheres were used, 3.65% of the rhBMP-2 was released in the first 2 h, 5.17% was released within 8 h, and 8.95% was released within 24 h. In the microsphere + fibrin glue group, 1.15% of the rhBMP-2 was released in the first 2 h, 1.75% was released within 8 h, and 6.68% was released within 24 h. Over 42 days, about 76.75% of the rhBMP-2 was released when using fibrin glue, which was lower than the amount released using microspheres alone (91.75%). In dog, a faster repair rate was observed on the side with the improved screw than on the side with traditional screw. The directional release system described here can improve the process of fracture healing and is a promising technique for repairing femoral neck fracture.Tissue Engineering Part A 12/2009; 15(12):3971-8. DOI:10.1089/ten.tea.2009.0052 · 4.64 Impact Factor