Article

Genetic demography of Antioquia (Colombia) and the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

The Galton Laboratory, Department of Biology (Wolfson House), University College London, UK.
Human Genetics (Impact Factor: 4.52). 05/2003; 112(5-6):534-41. DOI: 10.1007/s00439-002-0899-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We report a comparative genetic characterization of two population isolates with parallel demographic histories: the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR) and Antioquia (in northwest Colombia). The analysis of mtDNA, Y-chromosome and autosomal polymorphisms shows that Antioquia and the CVCR are genetically very similar, indicating that closely related parental populations founded these two isolates. In both populations, the male ancestry is predominantly European, whereas the female ancestry is mostly Amerind. In agreement with their isolation, the Amerindian mtDNA diversity of Antioquia and the CVCR is typical of ethnically-defined native populations and is markedly lower than in other Latin American populations. A comparison of linkage disequilibrium (LD) at 18 marker pairs in Antioquia and the CVCR shows that markers in LD in both populations are located at short genetic distances (<approximately 1 cM), whereas markers separated by greater distances are in LD only in the CVCR. This difference probably reflects stochastic variation of LD at the limited number of genome regions compared. The genetic similarity of the populations from Antioquia and the CVCR together with differences in LD between them should be exploitable for the identification and fine mapping of shared disease-related gene variants.

Full-text

Available from: Jaana Hartiala, Jun 15, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
207 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: After the emancipation of African slaves in the Caribbean, the labor void left by out-migrating former slaves was filled by in-migrating indentured servants from prepartition India and China. In some areas of the Caribbean such as Trinidad, Suriname, and Guyana, the East-Indian migrants formed large communities. In this article, we report a study based on mtDNA and Y-chromosomal markers of a small East-Indian community from Limón, Costa Rica. The purpose of the project is to determine the place of origin in the Indian subcontinent of the ancestors of our group and the contributions to its gene pool through gene flow by members of other ethnic groups. Both Y-chromosome and mtDNA suggest that the Indo-Costa Ricans descend from migrants primarily from Central India. While both paternal and maternal markers indicate that this group is overwhelmingly of Indian origin, they also indicate that males and females of African, European, and Amerindian origin contributed to it differently. We discuss our results in the historical context of the virtual extinction of Amerindian Caribbean groups, the forced migration of African slaves to the Caribbean, and the gene flow between Amerindians, Europeans, East-Indians, and Africans that eventually produced the Caribbean's currently diverse gene pool.
    American Journal of Physical Anthropology 10/2007; 134(2):175-89. DOI:10.1002/ajpa.20652 · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the last decade, the Costa Rican Central Valley population (CRCV), has received considerable scientific attention, attributed in part to a particularly interesting population structure. Two different and contradictory explanations have emerged: (1) An European-Amerindian-African admixed population, with some regional genetic heterocigosity and moderate degrees of consanguinity, similar to other Latin-American populations. (2) A genetic isolate, with a recent founder effect of European origin, genetically homogeneous, with a high intermarriage rate, and with a high degree of consanguinity. Extensive civil and religious documentation, since the settlement of the current population, allows wide genealogy and isonymy studies useful in the analysis of both hypotheses. This paper reviews temporal and spatial aspects of endogamy and consanguinity in the CRCV as a key to understand population history. The average inbreeding coefficients (a) between 1860 and 1969 show a general decrease within time. The consanguinity in the CRCV population is not homogeneous, and it is related to a variable geographic pattern. Results indicate that the endogamy frequencies are high but in general it was not correlated with a values. The general tendency shows a consanguinity decrease in time, and from rural to urban communities, repeating the tendencies observed in other countries with the same degree of development, and follows the general Western World tendency. Few human areas or communities in the world can be considered true genetic isolates. As shown, during last century, the CRCV population has had consanguinity values that definitively do not match those of true genetic isolates. A clear knowledge of the Costa Rican population genetic structure is needed to explain the origin of genetic diseases and its implications to the health system.
    Revista de biologia tropical 10/2004; 52(3):629-44. DOI:10.15517/rbt.v1i2.15351 · 0.61 Impact Factor
  • Biomédica: revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud 06/2012; 32(4). DOI:10.7705/biomedica.v32i4.593 · 0.62 Impact Factor